Flow and retreat of the Late Quaternary Pine Island-Thwaites palaeo-ice stream, West Antarctica

first_imgMultibeam swath bathymetry and sub-bottom profiler data are used to establish constraints on the flow and retreat history of a major palaeo-ice stream that carried the combined discharge from the parts of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet now occupied by the Pine Island and Thwaites glacier basins. Sets of highly elongated bedforms show that, at the last glacial maximum, the route of the Pine Island-Thwaites palaeo-ice stream arced north-northeast following a prominent cross-shelf trough. In this area, the grounding line advanced to within similar to 68 km of, and probably reached, the shelf edge. Minimum ice thickness is estimated at 715 m on the outer shelf, and we estimate a minimum ice discharge of similar to 108 km(3) yr(-1) assuming velocities similar to today’s Pine Island glacier (similar to 2.5 km yr(-1)). Additional bed forms observed in a trough northwest of Pine Island Bay likely formed via diachronous ice flows across the outer shelf and demonstrate switching ice stream behavior. The “style” of ice retreat is also evident in five grounding zone wedges, which suggest episodic deglaciation characterized by halts in grounding line migration up-trough. Stillstands occurred in association with changes in ice bed gradient, and phases of inferred rapid retreat correlate to higher bed slopes, supporting theoretical studies that show bed geometry as a control on ice margin recession. However, estimates that individual wedges could have formed within several centuries still imply a relatively rapid overall retreat. Our findings show that the ice stream channeled a substantial fraction of West Antarctica’s discharge in the past, just as the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers do today.last_img read more

“Tough decisions lie ahead” says epropservices CEO

first_imgHome » News » COVID-19 news » “Tough decisions lie ahead” says epropservices CEO previous nextAgencies & People“Tough decisions lie ahead” says epropservices CEOJon Cooke, CEO of eProp Services, parent company of Fine & Country and The Guild, says without an extension to furlough payments beyond May, agents will have to consider redundancies.Sheila Manchester16th April 202001,532 Views A substantial percentage of staff have been furloughed across the property sector and are at risk of losing their livelihoods if the government does not extend the job retention scheme past 31st May.Jon Cooke, Group CEO of Epropservices, the parent company of The Guild and Fine & Country, says that while many estate agencies have made their companies as lean as possible, transactions are greatly impacted, so many will have to make some tough decisions at the end of May – without an extension to the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (CJRS).“With a large number of staff furloughed and salary costs greatly reduced, many agencies have hunkered down and ride out the storm for the short term. However, many businesses will be looking at their financial situation and making the decision whether they will be able to keep staff on their payroll beyond the end of May. That is unless the government extends the job retention scheme, a decision that would be essential to a large segment of the industry,” adds Cooke.Fast recovery“Unlike other sectors such as pubs, cafes and restaurants, that should see a relatively fast recovery, the sentiment-driven property sector will take longer and will need more support from the government,” says Cooke.While it seems that the majority of agents’ transaction pipelines remain intact, it will take a while before transactions complete and revenue streams flow again. If restrictions are lifted on 1st June and transactions resume, it will only be late summer that agents will start to see the fruits of their labours.”“There is no doubt that the government has already been crucial in helping estate agents and the economy tread water during the crisis – but if the taps are turned off, the industry and the property market will take a substantial knock. We urge the government to continue taking measures to protect the industry and job roles that will be needed to get people moving again,” Cooke adds.“While the government has already forecast an estimated cost of £40 billion on the initial three-month scheme, failing to take further measures to protect the industry would be far more financially damaging,” he concludes.Read more about Fine & Country  furloughing coronavirus jon cooke fine & country April 16, 2020Nigel LewisWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles Letting agent fined £11,500 over unlicenced rent-to-rent HMO3rd May 2021 BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021last_img read more

Housing secretary calls for estate agents to help ‘rebuild the economy’

first_imgHome » News » COVID-19 news » Housing secretary calls for estate agents to help ‘rebuild the economy’ previous nextCOVID-19 newsHousing secretary calls for estate agents to help ‘rebuild the economy’Robert Jenrick makes the unusual decision to publish his latest announcement for estate agents on Zoopla’s website.Nigel Lewis15th May 202002,384 Views Secretary of State for Housing Robert Jenrick has made the highly unusual move of penning a column for a property portal in which he reveals that the government always intended to make property the first industry to be allowed back to work.His comments within the 450 word column, which was published late last night by Zoopla, are designed to reassure agents that they remain at the heart of the government’s plan to get the economy moving again.“We all need to work together safely as we rebuild our economy and restore livelihoods, starting with the housing market. If we do this together, we will recover from this crisis,” says Robert Jenrick.“I am grateful to everyone who has been carefully preparing to return to work over recent weeks.“Each of the building blocks of the buying and selling process are now back in business. The foundation for this is our new guidance on moving home while staying safe, including keeping a two-metre distance.“Estate agents, conveyancers and removal firms can also reopen if they follow social distancing guidelines. This is aided by our guidance for people working in homes, including fitters, so they can support home moving while reducing the risk of infection.”The Secretary of State’s missive is a PR coup for Zoopla, as housing ministers have in the past have usually only made appeals directly to the property industry via headline speeches at the sector’s major conferences.It may also put noses out of joint at Rightmove, which is one of the UK’s most successful publicly-listed companies and a member of the FTSE-100.Read the column in full.Robert Jenrick Zoopla May 15, 2020Nigel LewisWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles Letting agent fined £11,500 over unlicenced rent-to-rent HMO3rd May 2021 BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021last_img read more

Hoboken Zoning Board denies six-story building with affordable housing, charity group

first_img× HOBOKEN — Late last month, the Hoboken Zoning Board of Adjustment denied an application that would have created a six-story mixed use building at 1417 Adams St. The building would have included 27 one-bedroom units, 17 two-bedroom units, 10 three-bedroom units and three studios. Six units in the building would have been affordable housing. The building would have also included roughly 13,000 square feet of commercial space including 3,000 square feet for Big Brothers, Big Sisters, the nonprofit organization. The property, designed by Minervini Vandermark, would have been developed by Advance Realty, which just opened the Harlow at 14th Street and Willow Avenue. The latter building includes a Trader Joe’s set to open this Friday. The proposed Adams Street project required several zoning variances including variances for height, lot coverage, parking, roof and yard setbacks, and development of a non-conforming lot. 1417 Adams St. is in an I-1 Industrial zone which lists office buildings, research laboratories, warehouses and related office buildings, essential utility and public services, and wireless telecommunications towers as permitted uses but not residential mixed use properties which required the developers to seek a D-1 variance.“I guess my conclusion is that the applicant has failed to meet the burden of proof, in particular, no special reasons have been established to justify the D-1 use variance, and there is a legal standard for that,” said Chairman James Aibel, according to the meeting’s transcripts.“Our city fathers and city leaders have not acted,” he added. “It has been several years. They have not acted on rezoning this area. I think that says to me that we should not be rezoning this matter on an applicant’s desire, but we should be rezoning it based on the will of the people, and the people have said through their elected officials that this area is not ready to be rezoned or changed until there is further exploration.”The seven member board voted 6-1 to deny the application.last_img read more

Australian Footy enters UK

first_imgThe Great Australian Pie company is to launch a range of eight pies in the UK, which have been created by a leading Australian chef, Ben O’Donohue.Targeted at the retail sector, after two years of trials at sports grounds and music festivals, the pies are being made under licence by Wrights Pies. They contain only British ingredients, with no artificial colours or flavours.The pies use a shortcrust pastry top and bottom, which, unlike the crumblier and softer version in the UK, is said to be richer, heavier and harder, holding its shape well. The pies have 30% meat content with the beef and lamb sourced in Dumfries & Galloway.Business development director Steve Hamer said: “They come in eight flavours, including the classic Aussie pie called Footy, which is minced chuck steak, onions and organic spices in a rich gravy. All the pies are 265g except the Footy at 220g.”[http://www.greataustralianpieco.com].last_img

Porter County mom arrested after 5-year-old son was found alone

first_img Google+ (“Cuffs4” by banspy, Attribution 2.0 Generic) PORTER Co., Ind. — A nearly naked 5-year-old boy was roaming around outside near the road for an hour and a half, said Porter County police.The mother was found at home so drunk she couldn’t even correctly spell her name. When asked how to spell Amy Kessinger, police said she spelled it, ‘Ay Kssinger.’Kessinger was taken to jail, and is accused of neglect of a dependent.A witness told police they first saw the child outside, wearing just a t-shirt. They were sitting on the hood of a car parked on the road.The witness didn’t think the child was alone, but went back outside later and the boy was still outside.Kessinger was three times the legal limit said police. Porter County mom arrested after 5-year-old son was found alone WhatsApp IndianaLocalNews Twitter Pinterest Pinterest Twitter WhatsApp By Network Indiana – July 17, 2020 0 658 Google+ Facebook Facebook Previous articleIndiana and Michigan classrooms predicted to struggle with social distancingNext articleISSMA cancels fall marching band competitions Network Indianalast_img read more

News story: Important information for DVLA customers

first_imgDue to the severe weather, our contact centre will be closed this afternoon, Thursday 1 March, and also tomorrow, Friday 2 March.last_img

Howlin Rain Preview New Album, Announce Summer Tour

first_imgOakland, California’s Howlin Rain have announced a 28-date U.S. summer tour in support of their fifth album, The Alligator Bride, due June 8 via Silver Current Records. In support of the announcement, the band has also unveiled a brand new rock and roll track, “The Wild Boys”, from the forthcoming record. The sprawling, eight-minute, tour-de-force is the second single from The Alligator Bride, following previously released title track, “Alligator Bridge”.According to a press release, frontman Ethan Miller and company drew inspiration for this album from classic rock formations such as the Grateful Dead‘s Europe ’72, Mountain Bus‘ 1974 burner Sundance, and Free‘s masterpiece of atmospheric, minimalist blues, 1969’s Fire and Water. However, Ethan particularly attributes the magic captured across the album’s seven tracks to the vibe of the Mansion studio in San Francisco; the same space that gave birth to modern garage-psych classics by Ty Segall, Thee Oh Sees and Mikal Cronin. Howlin Rain tracked the record there over three days, playing live to tape and cutting the material in first and second takes with engineer Eric “King Riff” Bauer. The result is a set of wide-eyed, ragged and unapologetic rock ‘n’ roll.Listen to both tracks from The Alligator Bride below: The first leg of Howlin Rain’s upcoming tour—beginning in Joshua Tree, CA—blankets the West Coast throughout the month of June. Highlights include a performance at Huichica Music Festival in Sonoma Valley, six shows across California and tour closers at Mississippi Studios in Portland and Sunset Tavern in Seattle. In July, Howlin Rain kick off the tour’s second leg on the East Coast, including shows at DC9 in Washington, DC, Johnny Brenda’s in Philadelphia and two nights at Brooklyn Bowl where they’ll be joined by Grateful Shred and Mapache. From there, the band will sweep through the Midwest with stops along the way at 7th Street Entry in Minneapolis, Beachland Tavern in Cleveland and Horseshoe Tavern in Toronto, among several others.See below for a list of upcoming dates, and head to the band’s website for more information.HOWLIN RAIN // Tour DatesJune 2 – Joshua Tree, CA – Desert + DenimJune 5 – Long Beach, CA – Fingerprints Music ++June 6 – San Diego, CA – The CasbahJune 7 – Costa Mesa, CA – The Wayfarer ++June 8 – Los Angeles, CA – The Moroccon //June 9 – Sonoma Valley, CA – Huichica Music FestivalJune 10 – Tahoe, NV – Red Room / Crystal Bay Casino + ResortJune 12 – Salt Lake City, UT – Urban LoungeJune 13 – Boise, ID – NeuroluxJune 15 – Portland, OR – Mississippi StudiosJune 16 – Seattle, WA – Sunset TavernJuly 11 – Washington, DC – DC9 **July 12 – Philadelphia, PA – Johnny Brendas **July 13 – Brooklyn, NY – Brooklyn Bowl ^^July 14 – Brooklyn, NY – Brooklyn Bowl ^^July 15 – Columbus, OH – Ace Of CupsJuly 17 – St. Louis, MO – Ready Room **July 18 – Davenport, IA – Raccoon Motel **July 19 – Minneapolis, MN – 7th Street Entry, **July 20 – Milwaukee, WI- The Cooperage **July 21 – Cleveland, OH – Beachland Tavern **July 22 – Cincinnati, OH – MOTR Pub **July 23 – Detroit, MI – El Club **July 24 – Pittsburgh, PA – Club Cafe **July 25 – Toronto, ON – Horseshoe Tavern **July 26 – Northampton, MA – The Root Cellar **July 27 – Jersey Hall, NJ – Monty Hall **August 1 – Chico, CA – Naked Lounge++ with Mapache// with BRONCHO** with Mountain Movers^^ with Grateful Shred, MapacheView All Tour Dateslast_img read more

Saving the mother river

first_imgThis is the third in a series of articles about Harvard’s interdisciplinary work at the Kumbh Mela, a religious gathering that every 12 years creates the world’s largest pop-up city.ALLAHABAD, India — Standing at the shores of the Sangam — the calm expanse of gray-blue water where the Ganges, the Yamuna, and the mythical Saraswati rivers meet — it’s not hard to sense the profound spiritual significance the spot holds for millions of Hindu pilgrims.Crossing it, however, can be a harrowing experience.“One at a time!” a guide shouted in practiced English, as he shuffled eight Harvard students and their professor-leaders, Diana Eck and Dorothy Austin, into a narrow, creaky wooden boat. The guide and his partner manned the oars at the front of vessel. “Hands in! Hands in!”Eck (second from left) and her students were interviewed by Indian journalists at a clean-up effort put on by Ganga Action Parivar, a religious group focused on raising environmental consciousness at the Kumbh Mela. Photo by Isaac DaynoIt was good advice. As a third man pushed the boat off from shore, it immediately collided with a scrum of other identical boats, narrowly avoiding banging its passengers’ heads or pinching their fingers.A mix of undergraduates, doctoral candidates, and Harvard Divinity School (HDS) students, the group had been at the Kumbh Mela, Allahabad’s massive religious gathering, for several days already, and had been studying elements of the festival under Eck’s guidance for months. But there was always another jolt in store.Where better for them to learn firsthand the powerful role that nature and religion play in Indian culture than at a six-week-long, millions-strong celebration of Mother Ganga?“For anyone interested in the vibrancy of Hindu culture, this is a kind of epicenter of religious life,” Eck said.Sacred, but polluted On this afternoon, the group was headed to a stretch of beach at the Sangam to track down Swami Chidanand Saraswati, a small, energetic man in saffron-colored robes cropped above the knee, with a wild puff of wiry hair and an equally untamable beard.  Known simply as Swamiji to his followers, the Swami is one of the leading faces of the “Green Kumbh” movement, a new feature at this year’s Maha Kumbh Mela and an offshoot of a broader push for environmentally conscious pilgrimage in India.“Pilgrimage is on the rise in India,” explained Eck, a professor of comparative religion and Indian studies at HDS and Fredric Wertham Professor of Law and Psychiatry in Society. “Millions upon millions of people travel to these holy places, and that takes a toll, in many ways, on the environment. It is something that is of deep concern to me, and that’s also emerging as a major concern in India.”Indian Hindus’ relationship to their land is unique, as Eck has described in her books, most recently last year’s “India: A Sacred Geography.” In Hinduism, nature is suffused with the presence of the gods; rivers in particular have special meaning. And yet, paradoxically, Hindus’ mass devotions can overwhelm the fragile ecosystem of a river such as the Ganges, putting it in danger.“There is no culture in the world that uses its rivers as extensively as a sort of ritual theater as India does,” Eck said. “It’s not just the Ganges and the Yamuna. It’s seven sacred rivers from north to south, and beyond that many other sacred rivers that are utilized for daily religious rites in ways that one simply doesn’t find anywhere else.”“There are these dilemmas: Do we use the river water to generate hydroelectric energy? Do we use the flowing rivers to create canals and irrigation systems?” Eck said. “How does all of that relate to the sacredness of the waters, of the rivers, and the ways in which they are used by millions upon millions of people?“Those are important issues, and they’re not simply issues of people who are in religious studies,” she continued. “They’re environmental issues, they’re scientific issues, and they’re inherently interdisciplinary.”Taking action at the GangaOnce Eck’s students arrived at the Kumbh, those environmental concerns became central to their work. Each had developed a project to pursue when taking the interdisciplinary course with Eck and Rahul Mehrotra, a Graduate School of Design (GSD) professor, in the fall. Their areas of interest ranged from the nature of performance and entertainment at the festival to toilets and sanitation efforts to attitudes toward the damming of the Ganga, as the Ganges is called.Rachel Taylor, a sophomore anthropology concentrator, was interested in something a little more humble: flowers. Strands of marigolds — adorning naked holy men (nagababas) like robes, strung between tents, sent down the river as an offering to Mother Ganga — are so ubiquitous at the Kumbh that after a while they hardly register.“But flowers, too, are spectacles,” Taylor wrote in her final paper for the course. They also have a charged political history. Some Hindus believe that the flowers represent luxury; the Indian political leader Mahatma Gandhi, she learned, declined to wear garlands on the principle that cutting a flower amounted to an act of violence. But other sects promoted the offering of flowers to the gods as a great equalizer, an idea that intrigued Taylor. After all, the Kumbh is also a place where caste and status are leveled, as rich and poor, men and women, all bathe together in the Ganga.“One of the goals is to convince pilgrims that they’re actually polluting the Ganga — they’re not worshiping her by giving her flowers,” said Rachel Taylor (facing camera), a sophomore anthropology concentrator from Harvard. Photo by Katie Koch/Harvard StaffAt the festival, Taylor planned to learn more about what she called “the Kumbh’s most active participant.” Luckily for her, Swamiji and his followers — quickly spotted once the Harvard group landed — were focused on the marigolds, too. The group was staging a “symbolic action,” picking up trash and shards of clay pots (a common offering to the Ganga). They were also raking and burying large piles of soggy marigolds that would otherwise clog the river.“One of the goals is to convince pilgrims that they’re actually polluting the Ganga — they’re not worshiping her by giving her flowers,” Taylor said, as she observed Swamiji’s helpers digging holes in the sand and helped to collect trash.Her work was soon interrupted by a group of Indian journalists, eager for an interview with a Harvard student. (The Swami’s group, Ganga Action Parivar, turned out to be impressively media savvy. Nearly all of the students in Eck’s cohort ended up on television or in Indian newspapers later that day.)Nearly all of the students in Eck’s group ended up on television or in Indian newspapers later that day. Photo by Isaac Dayno“It’s not that trash is for someone else,” the Swami expounded to the group. “Trash is everywhere,” and is everyone’s responsibility.But despite the flurry of media attention that the cleanup garnered, the Green Kumbh’s larger goal of a healthy Ganga is still far from a reality. Last year, the New York Times reported, India announced a multibillion-dollar effort to clean up the Ganges river basin, where water-borne illness costs its 400 million residents nearly $4 billion a year. Religious practices like those at the Kumbh, by one estimate, are responsible for 5 percent of the river’s pollution.“Do you think there will come a point where the Ganga’s [significance] will somehow diminish as the river becomes more polluted?” Isaac Dayno, an undergraduate on the trip, asked Sadhvi Bhagawati Saraswati, an American-born woman who served as the Swami’s right hand. “Will pilgrims no longer bathe in the Ganga because of these concerns?”Sadhvi Bhagawati used an analogy: If your mother fell in a sewer ditch, would you hesitate to help her up? “There would never come a moment when you wouldn’t love her, when you wouldn’t lend her your hand,” she said. “I can’t imagine Ganga ever getting to a point where the faithful don’t bathe.”Valuing cultureAfter breaking free of the cameras, the Harvard group piled back into a boat. Students took turns snapping photos of each other in seemingly endless configurations, the waters of the Ganga gently lapping at their backs.Austin, Eck’s wife and a lecturer on psychology — as well as a skilled rower — took a turn with the oar, to cheers of “Go Dorothy!” Other boats, packed with men happily singing in Hindi, drifted past, sometimes colliding in floating traffic jams.For the class, it was the last full day at the Kumbh, a fact that hovered over the group members as they piled into a single Jeep to head back to the Harvard campsite. There, they would gather a final time with other professors, students, and researchers over vegetarian curry and chai masala to share their findings, the initial collaboration for a yearlong interdisciplinary research project, “Mapping the Kumbh Mela,” sponsored by the South Asia Institute and the Harvard Global Health Institute (HGHI). (The Harvard team hopes to release, among other things, a book spearheaded by Mehrotra and educational tools produced by HGHI, which also sponsored some of Eck’s students at the Kumbh.)Taylor stared quietly out the back window as the car jostled alongside the Ganga. In the evening glow of the streetlights, the clumps of wet marigolds all along the water’s edge made a textured carpet. A year before, she said, she had entered Harvard with pre-med aspirations; she was now more assured than ever of her decision to pursue anthropology.“It made me confident in how much I value culture, in why I’m studying it,” Taylor said later of the trip. “Every day, every hour, I think about how lucky I was to experience this.”Learn more about “Mapping the Kumbh Mela” and follow the South Asia Institute’s blog on the project here.Read previous Gazette coverage here, and watch the Gazette for more stories on the Kumbh Mela throughout February.last_img read more

04 Challenging weeds

first_img Volume XXVIII Number 1 Page 4 Annual weeds sprout, grow to maturity, go to seed and die out in one year. They’re relatively easy to pull up and don’t leave persistent roots behind. But they get even by scattering seeds for future plants.Many bothersome weeds were introduced to North America as food sources. It’s possible to add young tender dandelions, chickweed, pepper cress or shepherd’s purse to salads.Eating them, while interesting, doesn’t provide a reliable way to control weeds. Munching on them does have psychological and ecological value. It reminds us that every plant we eat or use was developed from a wild plant.All naturalNo scientist has ever created a food plant in a lab. But many have worked to enhance the edible and useful characteristics of thousands of wild plants. We owe our lives to weeds.Of course, that fact may not be very comforting when you’re looking at an overgrown garden.Two problems confront gardeners when controlling annual weeds. The seeds persist for a long time in soil, and they come up at irregular intervals. Both traits make them hard to control.Annual weeds grow seeds in prodigious quantities. Then the wind, birds and animals and the plant’s own ability to expel and propel the seeds distributes them everywhere. The scattered seeds will germinate and new plants grow from them whenever the soil is dug or disturbed.Many gardeners have been frustrated by the flush of green across a newly-raked garden. Clean it off, turn the soil over, and within a week, hundreds of weed seeds will germinate.Persistence and method together, though, will help control annual weeds.Meet the enemy face-to-faceThe main enemy is the seed production — that’s the annual weed’s primary weapon. If you can keep it from producing seeds, by some method of weed birth control, you can reduce, if not eliminate, this continuing problem.No, you’ll never really eliminate weeds. But all weeds, no matter what their life cycles, are easier to control as small, immature plants.The first key is mechanical scuffling of the soil to kill newly-emerged plants. To control weeds by some form of hoeing, you need to keep watch and hoe as often as needed to keep the emerging weeds down before they go to seed.A weekly “weed walk” through the garden with a scuffling tool in hand can reduce time and effort later. The old saying, “One year’s seeds, seven years’ weeds,” reflects the persistence of weed seeds.Annual weeds — all weeds — tend to hide out under plants or disguise themselves as garden ornamentals. Lift plant edges and look closely for sneaky seedlings.Besides hoeing, another way to control weeds is to smother them. This removes chances for the hidden seeds to get to light and germinate.Using ground-cover plants in a garden is a good way to reduce weed problems. A well-established stand of low perennial plants will shade out weeds.But ground covers must be weeded as they fill in, and it may take three years of persistent care before their branches offer substantial weed protection.Covering the ground with 2 to 3 inches of any organic mulch, such as compost, leaves, aged sawdust or commercial compost, will help keep thousands of annual weed seedlings from coming up.It’s possible, too, to use one of the weed-prevention geotextiles made of a woven, synthetic fiber. These allow water and air to penetrate but won’t allow light to the weeds.Put mulch on top of these textiles for best appearance. They last for years if not torn by careless digging.These textiles work more to the advantage of ornamental plants than solid black plastic does. Black plastic doesn’t allow air or water to penetrate. This can damage the plant roots’ health. By Wayne McLaurin University of Georgialast_img read more