Accurate biological models are critical to predict biotic responses to climate change and human‐caused disturbances. Current understanding of organismal responses to change stems from studies over relatively short timescales. However, most projections lack long‐term observations incorporating the potential for transgenerational phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaption, the keys to resistance. Here, we describe unexpected temporal compensatory responses in biomineralization as a mechanism for resistance to altered environmental conditions and predation impacts in a calcifying foundation species. We evaluated exceptional archival specimens of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis collected regularly between 1904 and 2016 along 15 km of Belgian coastline, along with records of key environmental descriptors and predators. Contrary to global‐scale predictions, shell production increased over the last century, highlighting a protective capacity of mussels for qualitative and quantitative trade‐offs in biomineralization as compensatory responses to altered environments. We also demonstrated the role of changes in predator communities in stimulating unanticipated biological trends that run contrary to experimental predictive models under future climate scenarios. Analysis of archival records has a key role for anticipating emergent impacts of climate change.
All coastal systems experience disturbances and many across the planet are under unprecedented threat from an intensification of a variety of stressors. The West Antarctic Peninsula is a hotspot of physical climate change and has experienced a dramatic loss of sea‐ice and glaciers in recent years. Among other things, sea‐ice immobilizes icebergs, reducing collisions between icebergs and the seabed, thus decreasing ice‐scouring. Ice disturbance drives patchiness in successional stages across seabed assemblages in Antarctica’s shallows, making this an ideal system to understand the ecosystem resilience to increasing disturbance with climate change. We monitored a shallow benthic ecosystem before, during and after a 3‐year pulse of catastrophic ice‐scouring events and show that such systems can return, or bounce back, to previous states within 10 years. Our long‐term data series show that recovery can happen more rapidly than expected, when disturbances abate, even in highly sensitive cold, polar environments.
Share this article December 23, 2016 View post tag: Cobra Back to overview,Home naval-today Lockheed to upgrade target sight systems on Cobra helicopters The U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center has awarded Lockheed Martin a $150.9 million contract for the Target Sight System (TSS) on the AH-1Z Cobra attack helicopter. The TSS is a large-aperture midwave forward-looking infrared sensor with a laser designator/rangefinder turret.The system provides the capability to identify and laser-designate targets at maximum weapon range, significantly enhancing platform survivability and lethality.This contract also includes purchases by the government of Pakistan through the foreign military sales program.If all options are exercised, the cumulative value of the contract could be brought to $284.6 million.The AH-1Z attack helicopter provides rotary wing close air support, anti-armor, armed escort, armed/visual reconnaissance and fire support for the U.S. Marine Corps.The 12,300 lbs (5579 kg) helicopter is equipped with an integrated advanced fire control system and the capacity to support multiple weapons configurations.Initial operational capability for the AH-1Z, which is replacing the two-bladed AH-1W, was reached in 2011. View post tag: Lockheed Martin Authorities Lockheed to upgrade target sight systems on Cobra helicopters View post tag: US Marines
Scott Ellaway, formerly organ scholar at Keble College, and James Bowman, previously a choral scholar at New, are just two of Oxford’s alumni making their way in the classical music world. Last Friday, at the Oxford Playhouse, counter-tenor Bowman performed alongside conductor Ellaway and his newly formed ensemble, Orchestra Europa. Europa has been set up to allow young ambitious musicians throughout Europe the opportunity to launch their careers. The idea is based upon New World Symphony, a project in Miami established in 1987 by Michael Tilson Thomas, which selects promising young classical musicians from across the U.S.A. and trains them for three years as orchestral performers. ‘Europa will take musicians recommended by conservatoires and, having given them training, help them to gain positions in the best orchestras in the world,’ Ellaway told me. ‘We will be holding auditions in April to select members of the orchestra, which will in the end be of symphonic size’.Despite having only rehearsed together for a week at the time of Europa’s first launch concert last Friday, the orchestra played with amazing cohesion, with Ellaway’s own enthusiasm as conductor displayed in the playing. Symphonies by Haydn and Schubert were separated by two short songs, sung by sixty-six year old Bowman. The first song, by Hasse, was extremely playful, and was juxtaposed perfectly by the beautiful Mozart song that followed. Both songs were short, however, and it was disappointing to see Bowman’s performance come to an end so quickly.Orchestra Europa will give a series of concerts in 2008 throughout Europe with world-famous soloists such as Yan Pascal Tortelier, Sir Thomas Allen, Peter Donohoe and Nicola Benedetti. The second of their launch concerts will be in Oxford on 25th April at the Sheldonian theatre, where the orchestra will be performing music by Beethoven, Haydn, and Dr. Robert Saxton, a fellow in music at Worcester College. – Robin Thompson
Compass Group is to sell Selecta, its food vending machine business, to the German private equity company Allianz Capital Partners for £772.5m.The group said that approximately £500m of the proceeds will be used for a share buy- back programme over the next 12 to 18 months. Compass will pay £45m from the sale into the UK pension fund and the remaining amount will go towards reducing net debt.Selecta, which was put up for sale in November, has operations in 22 European countries and generated revenue of £476m last year, with operating profits reaching £45m. The company’s earnings before tax, interest, depreciation and amortisation were £87m.
moe. made their mark on Summer Camp Music Festival last night, welcoming out the legendary punk/funk band Fishbone for an amazing rendition of Prince’s “Purple Rain.” Fishbone delivered a madcap set of songs earlier in the day, but they stayed around to help the festival hosts pay tribute to the fallen musical icon. Fishbone front man Angelo Moore, AKA Dr. Madd Vibe, not only nailed the vocals but added a stellar sax solo, while moe. guitarist Al Schnier gave his all on Prince’s signature guitar solo. Our own Rex Thomson was on hand to film the tribute and share it with the world, and you can watch the footage below.
Edit this setlist | More Radiohead setlists Radiohead are currently on a brief U.S. tour in support of their beautiful new album A Moon Shaped Pool. The tour started last week, with the band triumphantly returned to Madison Square Garden after a 13 year absence. They played OK Computer track “Let Down” for the first time in 10 years on night one, then they surprised almost everyone in the room on night two when they played “Creep” for the first time on American soil since 2004. Radiohead’s two nights at MSG were a warm-up for an even bigger performance: a headlining set at Chicago’s Lollapalooza. Their set turned out to be one for the ages, with a career-spanning setlist filled with fan-favorites, relative rarities, and the unique atmosphere that only Radiohead can provide.The band has started every show this summer with the first five tracks from AMSP, but, for the first time this summer, left out tracks 3 and 4 (the groovy “Decks Dark” and the acoustic “Desert Island Disk”), opting instead to skip from the beautiful “Daydreaming” straight into the synth-induced panic attack that is “Ful Stop”. The band kept the energy extremely high, following the new material with some of their most intense songs in “2+2=5”, “Myxomatosis”, “My Iron Lung”, and “Climbing Up The Walls”. Fan favorites “Pyramid Song”, “The Gloaming”, “Weird Fishes/Arpeggi”, and “There There” all made their way into the set as well, and the band of course included their traditional classics “Everything In It’s Right Place” and “Idioteque towards the end of the set.Radiohead returned for their encore with another version of “Let Down”, now played at all three U.S. shows this summer after the aforementioned 10 year gap. “Paranoid Android” is one of Radiohead’s best live songs, and the epic multi-section tune worked wonders at Lollapalooza. “Nude” is, in contrast, Radiohead’s most delicate song, so pairing these two together, followed by the encore-closing rager of “Bodysnatchers”, shows the band’s diversity.They took one more short encore break before taking the stage one more time, delivering an epic pairing of “Street Spirit (Fade Out)” and “Karma Police” that left the crowd singing into the night’s sky as they exited the massive festival.Radiohead’s set was streamed on Sunday, and thanks to YouTube user MusicFest we can now watch Radiohead’s incredible Lollapalooza set in all of its glory.
The year of 2016 was certainly an interesting one in the music world. Though many headlines will focus on those who have passed this year, we wanted to reflect on the joyous occasions that music brought throughout 2016. In doing so, we asked a number of musicians to tell us about some of their favorite experiences throughout the year, and will be running features all week to celebrate all things live music.For the final installment of this Year In Review series, we took a slightly different approach and asked, “What music are you mosted excited for in 2017?” Many are looking forward to new releases from their favorite new bands, and several are hoping to be turned on to something totally new and original in the new year. Of course, many of these dedicated musicians are also laser-focused on their own projects, which bodes well for an incredible year of music in 2017Here’s what your favorite artists had to say:Oteil Burbridge (Dead & Company) – I am just excited for music itself in 2017, but specifically I want to study with Weedie Braimah next year.Scrambled Greg (Pigeons Playing Ping Pong) – John Mayer Trio, Phish and discovering more new bands like Organ Freeman.Jesus Coomes (Lettuce) – When Jerry comes back and takes a solo with Lettuce. It should be soon I promise.Simon Allen (The New Mastersounds) – The Bernard Purdie & Friends album which our bassist Pete Shand has written, produced and performed with Brian J from the Pimps. Pete played us a few rough mixes on our tour bus last week and we were blown away – it’s the funkiest, most soulful thing I’ve heard in 10 years. I’m so proud of Pete, and I can’t wait to hear the finished record. There is also a Melvin Sparks live LP coming out in 2017 on my label One Note Records. Melvin died suddenly in 2011 and this was his last recorded live show. The album, produced by Eddie Roberts, captures a wonderful performance at Nectar’s in Burlington, VT featuring Kung Fu organist Beau Sasser, drummer Bill Carbone and the Phish horn section, Dave Grippo and Brian McCarthy. Melvin and his music have had such a big influence on The New Mastersounds (we often play his tunes in our live set) and I’m honoured to have a role in curating this piece of his musical legacy.Mike Gantzer (Aqueous) – Man, so much! I always get psyched when Dopapod puts out new stuff and I know they’re working on an album now; I’m super psyched on the Chicago based band Mungion too, and my goal for 2017 is to catch a Kendrick Lamar show, and an Erykah Badu show- those are both bucket list sets! And of course AQ tour and festival season and seeing the ga-jillion other bands that rule in this scene!Rob Compa (Dopapod) – There’s a lot of fantastic bands out there who deserve and need to be heard by more people. I would love to see those bands get the attention they deserve for how hard they work and how much they pour into their art.Dave Watts (The Motet) – Our new album! (Sorry, does that even count??) [Editor’s Note: Sure does, Watts. We can’t wait for new Motet either!]Seth Walker – Working on some new music with Jano Rix of the Wood Brothers. I want to push the boundaries rhythmically, sonically and lyrically. Gotta keep swinging at it.Oliver Wood (The Wood Brothers) – New Wood Brothers Music! We have the new live record coming out in January and we also start work on a new studio album.JP Biondo (Cabinet) – The unexpected band that I don’t even know I love yet.Chuck Jones (Dopapod) – Jam CruiseCraig Brodhead (Turkuaz) – Jam Cruise.Eli Winderman (Dopapod) – Hopefully Tool and Gorillaz. I’m looking forward to getting into the studio with Dopapod and making some new music as well.Nick Tkachyk (Spafford) – GORILLAZ. PRYDZ. TCHAIKOVSKY.Matt Gibbs (Evolfo) – I’m not sure which of my favorite bands are officially preparing for 2017 releases to be honest! As far as popular stuff I’m aware that LCD Soundsystem and Modest Mouse are working on new albums, I’m pretty excited to see what those dudes are up to. I’m excited about new music from Ty Segall and Meatbodies. There’s so many friends’ bands in Brooklyn that I want more from as well, like Stuyedeyed or Nick Hakim. Can’t wait to hear new material from those guys. Our first full length album Last of the Acid Cowboys will also be out in April and I’m pumped to finally share that with people.Karl Denson – The coming year will be all about the Tiny Universe. I think I’ve completed the pieces of the puzzle to take this musically where I want to go. We’re going to spend a lot of time rehearsing and writing this year in hopes of really creating something long-lasting and memorable. There’s also the possibility of touring Europe with the Rolling Stones. That would be nice too.Sammi Garett (Turkuaz) – TURKUAZTony Hall (Dumpstaphunk) – Dumpstaphunk at Tipitina’sNeal Evans (Dopapod) – Sigur Ros tour ya dummy!David Shaw (The Revivalists) – Hoping for a Childish Gambino tour in 2017.Michael Kang (The String Cheese Incident) – SCI Sound Lab releases for Electric Forest FestivalAlric Carter (TAUK) – Lupe Fiasco and Bonobo new record releasesWilliam Apostol (Billy Strings) – I’m always looking forward to what Greensky Bluegrass is up too.. they just keep cranking out amazing songs and albums. Paul and Dave are 2 of my very favorite songwriters. I can’t wait to see what they have in store for us next!Jeremy Schon (Pigeons Playing Ping Pong) – Vulfpeck and The Big Something.Nigel Hall (Lettuce) – To make more musicEric Bloom (Lettuce) – LETTUCEDominic Peters (Goldfish) – Goldfish’s new albumRuss Lawton (Trey Anastasio Band) – TAB tour/ Red Rocks, Soule Monde’s new album and tour.Pappy Biondo (Cabinet) – Gatos BlancosLaurie Shook – Gregory Alan Isakov new albumRyan Jalbert (The Motet) – I’m personally excited that we blocked a lot of time on our calendars to work on material for our next record so as soon as we get back our New Year’s run we’re going to hit the ground running. Aside from that there are some highly anticipated album releases slated for next year that I’m psyched to check out. I’ve read that Bjork, Damian Marley, Missy, Chronixx, Beck, JT, Phoenix, MGMT, GZA are just a few of the bands projected to drop a new release. Life goes on!Cory Wong (Vulfpeck collaborator) – Kimbra’s last single blew me away. I’m hoping to hear a new full length from her. I’ve also gotta say that I’m super excited for my homie Theo Katzman’s new record to come out. I’ve heard it and it’s SLAMMING. I can’t wait for the world to get their ears on it.”T Sisters – We are so excited for our tour in support of The Wood Brothers on the East Coast in February!
Today, veteran Grateful Dead tribute project Dark Star Orchestra announced a string of 2018 Spring Tour dates. The 14-date tour Southeast tour will feature performances in Virginia, Maryland, Washington, D.C., Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, and South Carolina before closing out with their previously announced slot at April’s Wanee Festival.The Spring Tour announcement comes on the heels of a big year for the band, which saw them celebrate its 20th anniversary in November at Albany, NY’s historic Palace Theatre. The band also just announced both their 7th Annual Dark Star Jubilee festival over this coming Memorial Day weekend (featuring Los Lobos, Hot Tuna, The Infamous Stringdusters, Melvin Seals & DSO performing a Jerry Garcia Band set, The Nth Power, Rumpke Mountain Boys, California Kind, Jeff Mattson & Friends, The Lil’ Smokies, Holly Bowling, Dino English Quintet featuring James Poole, and more) as well as their very special debut at Red Rocks in July of 2018, where they will recreate the Grateful Dead’s own storied Red Rocks show from July 8th, 1978–exactly 40 years later to the day.Dark Star Orchestra Taps Los Lobos, Hot Tuna, Melvin Seals, & More For 7th Annual Jubilee FestivalYou can read the full list of newly announced Spring tour dates below. To purchase tickets to any of the Dark Star Orchestra Spring 2018 tour dates, or to check out a full list of upcoming performances, head to the band website.Dark Star Orchestra Upcoming Tour Dates3/30 : The Jefferson Theater : Charlottesville, VA3/31 : Rams Head Live : Baltimore, MD4/3 : The Hamilton : Washington, D.C.4/4 : Harvester Performance Center : Rocky Mount, VA4/6 : Buckhead Theatre : Atlanta, GA4/7 : Buckhead Theatre : Atlanta, GA4/8 : Avondale Brewing Company : Birmingham, AL4/10 : The Orange Peel : Asheville, NC4/12 : Charleston Music Hall : Charleston, SC4/13 : The Fillmore Charlotte : Charlotte, NC4/14 : Ritz Raleigh : Raleigh, NC4/15 : Greenfield Lake Amphitheater : Greenfield, NC4/17 : The Stage On Bay : Savannah, GA4/19 : Wanee Festival : Live Oak, FL[Cover photo via Mark Raker/DSO Facebook]
Barbara Grosz has a fantasy that every time a computer scientist logs on to write an algorithm or build a system, a message will flash across the screen that asks, “Have you thought about the ethical implications of what you’re doing?”Until that day arrives, Grosz, the Higgins Professor of Natural Sciences at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), is working to instill in the next generation of computer scientists a mindset that considers the societal impact of their work, and the ethical reasoning and communications skills to do so.“Ethics permeates the design of almost every computer system or algorithm that’s going out in the world,” Grosz said. “We want to educate our students to think not only about what systems they could build, but whether they should build those systems and how they should design those systems.”At a time when computer science departments around the country are grappling with how to turn out graduates who understand ethics as well as algorithms, Harvard is taking a novel approach.In 2015, Grosz designed a new course called “Intelligent Systems: Design and Ethical Challenges.” An expert in artificial intelligence and a pioneer in natural language processing, Grosz turned to colleagues from Harvard’s philosophy department to co-teach the course. They interspersed into the course’s technical content a series of real-life ethical conundrums and the relevant philosophical theories necessary to evaluate them. This forced students to confront questions that, unlike most computer science problems, have no obvious correct answer.Students responded. The course quickly attracted a following and by the second year 140 people were competing for 30 spots. There was a demand for more such courses, not only on the part of students, but by Grosz’s computer science faculty colleagues as well.“The faculty thought this was interesting and important, but they didn’t have expertise in ethics to teach it themselves,” she said.,In response, Grosz and collaborator Alison Simmons, the Samuel H. Wolcott Professor of Philosophy, developed a model that draws on the expertise of the philosophy department and integrates it into a growing list of more than a dozen computer science courses, from introductory programming to graduate-level theory.Under the initiative, dubbed Embedded EthiCS, philosophy graduate students are paired with computer science faculty members. Together, they review the course material and decide on an ethically rich topic that will naturally arise from the content. A graduate student identifies readings and develops a case study, activities, and assignments that will reinforce the material. The computer science and philosophy instructors teach side by side when the Embedded EthiCS material is brought to the classroom.Grosz and her philosophy colleagues are at the center of a movement that they hope will spread to computer science programs around the country. Harvard’s “distributed pedagogy” approach is different from many university programs that treat ethics by adding a stand-alone course that is, more often than not, just an elective for computer science majors.“Standalone courses can be great, but they can send the message that ethics is something that you think about after you’ve done your ‘real’ computer science work,” Simmons said. “We want to send the message that ethical reasoning is part of what you do as a computer scientist.”Embedding ethics across the curriculum helps computer science students see how ethical issues can arise from many contexts, issues ranging from the way social networks facilitate the spread of false information to censorship to machine-learning techniques that empower statistical inferences in employment and in the criminal justice system.Courses in artificial intelligence and machine learning are obvious areas for ethical discussions, but Embedded EthiCS also has built modules for less-obvious pairings, such as applied algebra.“We really want to get students habituated to thinking: How might an ethical issue arise in this context or that context?” Simmons said. “Standalone courses can be great, but they can send the message that ethics is something that you think about after you’ve done your ‘real’ computer science work.” — Alison Simmons, Samuel H. Wolcott Professor of Philosophy Microsoft president says it can’t be a reaction to social media pressure In hope of spreading the Embedded EthiCS concept widely across the computer science landscape, Grosz and colleagues have authored a paper to be published in the journal Communications of the ACM and launched a website to serve as an open-source repository of their most successful course modules.They envision a culture shift that leads to a new generation of ethically minded computer science practitioners.“In our dream world, success will lead to better-informed policymakers and new corporate models of organization that build ethics into all stages of design and corporate leadership,” Behrends says.The experiment has also led to interesting conversations beyond the realm of computer science.“We’ve been doing this in the context of technology, but embedding ethics in this way is important for every scientific discipline that is putting things out in the world,” Grosz said. “To do that, we will need to grow a generation of philosophers who will think about ways in which they can take philosophical ethics and normative thinking, and bring it to all of science and technology.”Carefully designed course modulesAt the heart of the Embedded EthiCS program are carefully designed, course-specific modules, collaboratively developed by faculty along with computer science and philosophy graduate student teaching fellows.A module that Kate Vredenburgh, a philosophy Ph.D. student, created for a course taught by Professor Finale Doshi-Velez asks students to grapple with questions of how machine-learning models can be discriminatory, and how that discrimination can be reduced. An introductory lecture sets out a philosophical framework of what discrimination is, including the concepts of disparate treatment and impact. Students learn how eliminating discrimination in machine learning requires more than simply reducing bias in the technical sense. Even setting a socially good task may not be enough to reduce discrimination, since machine learning relies on predictively useful correlations and those correlations sometimes result in increased inequality between groups.The module illuminates the ramifications and potential limitations of using a disparate impact definition to identify discrimination. It also introduces technical computer science work on discrimination — statistical fairness criteria. An in-class exercise focuses on a case in which an algorithm that predicts the success of job applicants to sales positions at a major retailer results in fewer African-Americans being recommended for positions than white applicants.An out-of-class assignment asks students to draw on this grounding to address a concrete ethical problem faced by working computer scientists (that is, software engineers working for the Department of Labor). The assignment gives students an opportunity to apply the material to a real-world problem of the sort they might face in their careers, and asks them to articulate and defend their approach to solving the problem. David Parkes, George F. Colony Professor of Computer Science, teaches a wide-ranging undergraduate class on topics in algorithmic economics. “Without this initiative, I would have struggled to craft the right ethical questions related to rules for matching markets, or choosing objectives for recommender systems,” he said. “It has been an eye-opening experience to get students to think carefully about ethical issues.”Grosz acknowledged that it can be a challenge for computer science faculty and their students to wrap their heads around often opaque ethical quandaries.“Computer scientists are used to there being ways to prove problem set answers correct or algorithms efficient,” she said. “To wind up in a situation where different values lead to there being trade-offs and ways to support different ‘right conclusions’ is a challenging mind shift. But getting these normative issues into the computer system designer’s mind is crucial for society right now.”Jeffrey Behrends, currently a fellow-in-residence at Harvard’s Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, has co-taught the design and ethics course with Grosz. Behrends said the experience revealed greater harmony between the two fields than one might expect.“Once students who are unfamiliar with philosophy are introduced to it, they realize that it’s not some arcane enterprise that’s wholly independent from other ways of thinking about the world,” he said. “A lot of students who are attracted to computer science are also attracted to some of the methodologies of philosophy, because we emphasize rigorous thinking. We emphasize a methodology for solving problems that doesn’t look too dissimilar from some of the methodologies in solving problems in computer science.”The Embedded EthiCS model has attracted interest from universities — and companies — around the country. Recently, experts from more than 20 institutions gathered at Harvard for a workshop on the challenges and best practices for integrating ethics into computer science curricula. Mary Gray, a senior researcher at Microsoft Research (and a fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society), who helped convene the gathering, said that in addition to impeccable technical chops, employers increasingly are looking for people who understand the need to create technology that is accessible and socially responsible.“Our challenge in industry is to help researchers and practitioners not see ethics as a box that has to be checked at the end, but rather to think about these things from the very beginning of a project,” Gray said.Those concerns recently inspired the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), the world’s largest scientific and educational computing society, to update its code of ethics for the first time since 1992. Related Networks Facebook, fake news, and ethics of censorship Maria Zlatkova ’18 shares challenges and triumphs at Harvard Autonomous Robot Systems Robots and work Introduction to AI Machines and moral decision making Curriculum at a glance A sampling of classes from the Embedded EthiCS pilot program and the issues they address Great Ideas in Computer Science The ethics of electronic privacy Design of Useful and Usable Interactive Systems Inclusive design and equality of opportunity Programming Languages Verifiably ethical software systems Introduction to Computer Science II Morally responsible software engineering Bulgarian-born computer science student finds her niche Corporate activism takes on precarious role The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news.