Multibeam swath bathymetry and sub-bottom profiler data are used to establish constraints on the flow and retreat history of a major palaeo-ice stream that carried the combined discharge from the parts of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet now occupied by the Pine Island and Thwaites glacier basins. Sets of highly elongated bedforms show that, at the last glacial maximum, the route of the Pine Island-Thwaites palaeo-ice stream arced north-northeast following a prominent cross-shelf trough. In this area, the grounding line advanced to within similar to 68 km of, and probably reached, the shelf edge. Minimum ice thickness is estimated at 715 m on the outer shelf, and we estimate a minimum ice discharge of similar to 108 km(3) yr(-1) assuming velocities similar to today’s Pine Island glacier (similar to 2.5 km yr(-1)). Additional bed forms observed in a trough northwest of Pine Island Bay likely formed via diachronous ice flows across the outer shelf and demonstrate switching ice stream behavior. The “style” of ice retreat is also evident in five grounding zone wedges, which suggest episodic deglaciation characterized by halts in grounding line migration up-trough. Stillstands occurred in association with changes in ice bed gradient, and phases of inferred rapid retreat correlate to higher bed slopes, supporting theoretical studies that show bed geometry as a control on ice margin recession. However, estimates that individual wedges could have formed within several centuries still imply a relatively rapid overall retreat. Our findings show that the ice stream channeled a substantial fraction of West Antarctica’s discharge in the past, just as the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers do today.
Loading… Nantes star, Moses Simon, is living his dream under the shadows and inspiration of Juventus forward, Cristiano Ronaldo. For many players in the world, Ronaldo provides inspiration, hard work, and dedication that can take you to the top. What he perhaps lacked in natural talent compared to his great rival Lionel Messi, Ronaldo has more in athleticism, physicality, and determination. Moses is slowly making his mark in Europe after an extremely successful season on loan with Nantes. After being named Nantes’ Player of the Season, the Ligue 1 outfit agreed on a deal with Simon’s parent club Levante make his loan deal permanent. read also:Moses Simon enjoying turnaround season with NantesAdvertisement Asked by Tribalfootball about his model in the game, Simon replied: “Cristiano Ronaldo is the player I modelled my game after. I want to keep on working hard and improving like him.” Simon named PSG defender Thiago Silva as the toughest opponent he has faced in a career that has spanned Slovakia, Belgium, Spain and France. And when asked about the differences between La Liga and Ligue 1, Simon was complimentary of both leagues. “I think both leagues are very good, highly competitive and very exciting to play,” Simon said. “La Liga is more technical, while Lique 1 is more physical. That is the main difference aside from the language too. For me, it is a big honour to have played in both leagues.” FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Promoted Content10 Risky Jobs Some Women Do2020 Tattoo Trends: Here’s What You’ll See This Year9 Facts You Should Know Before Getting A TattooBest & Worst Celebrity Endorsed Games Ever MadeSome Impressive And Almost Shocking Robots That ExistTop 10 Tiniest Phones Ever MadeA Guy Turns Gray Walls And Simple Bricks Into Works Of Art11 Most Immersive Game To Play On Your Table Top10 Absolutely Unique Facts About KanyeIs This The Most Delicious Food In The World?10 Largest Cities In The WorldThe Very Last Bitcoin Will Be Mined Around 2140. Read More