Scientists Turn Tequila into Diamonds

first_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The key to the surprising discovery is tequila’s ratio of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, which lies within the “diamond growth region.” The resulting diamond films could have inexpensive commercial applications as electrical insulators, say researchers Javier Morales, Luis Miguel Apátiga, and Víctor Manuel Castaño from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Morales is also with Nuevo León´s Autonomous University).Originally, the scientists were experimenting with creating diamonds from organic solutions such as acetone, ethanol, and methanol. They found that diluting ethanol in water resulted in high quality diamond films. The scientists then noticed that the ideal compound of 40 percent ethanol and 60 percent water was similar to the proportion used in tequila.”To dissipate any doubts, one morning on the way to the lab I bought a pocket-size bottle of cheap white tequila and we did some tests,” Apátiga said. “We were in doubt over whether the great amount of chemicals present in tequila, other than water and ethanol, would contaminate or obstruct the process, it turned out to be not so. The results were amazing, same as with the ethanol and water compound, we obtained almost spherical shaped diamonds of nanometric size. There is no doubt; tequila has the exact proportion of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms necessary to form diamonds.” In their experiments, the scientists grew the diamond films using “pulsed liquid injection chemical vapor deposition techniques.” In a specially made device, they heated the liquid tequila to 280 ºC (536 ºF) to transform it into a gas. In a reaction chamber, they heated the gas to 800 ºC (1470 ºF) to break down its molecular structure, resulting in solid diamond crystals of about 100-400 nm. The crystals fell onto silicon or stainless steel trays, accumulating in a thin, uniform film. The high temperatures removed all of the tequila´s carbon impurities to result in pure diamonds.The final diamond film was hard and heat-resistant – properties that could make the diamond useful as coatings for cutting tools, high-power semiconductors, radiation detectors and optical-electronic devices, the scientists explained. They plan to begin industrial-scale applications around 2011, and hope to interest a tequila producer in widening its market beyond the traditional beverage. For now, the scientists are continuing to test different tequilas´ abilities to produce diamonds. They´re also working on creating doped diamonds, which contain impurities, to serve as semiconductors.More information: “Growth of Diamond Films from Tequila”© 2009 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Whoever thought that science was a dry subject might change their mind after learning about a new discovery in which tequila is turned into diamonds. A team of Mexican scientists found that the heated vapor from 80-proof (40% alcohol) tequila blanco, when deposited on a silicon or stainless steel substrate, can form diamond films. The 2009 Ig Nobel prizewinners Various tequila bottles in sunlight. Image credit: Aaron Sherman (c) 2005. Citation: Scientists Turn Tequila into Diamonds (2008, November 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-11-scientists-tequila-diamonds.htmllast_img read more

Googles PowerMeter Will Help Reduce Energy Consumption Video

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Google’s PowerMeter Will Help Reduce Energy Consumption (Video) (2009, February 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-02-google-powermeter-energy-consumption-video.html Explore further Clean energy from local producers The data collected from these smart devices is displayed on a graph and shows the amount of power used and which device is using it at any given period of time. This will allow people to make smart decisions on how to better manage their energy consumption. (Physorg.com) — Google.org has announced “PowerMeter”, a platform that will help users track their home electricity usage in real-time on their home computer. This platform will receive data from “smart meters” and other electricity management devices that will collect detailed data on energy consumption. Video: Google PowerMeter Video ClipWith this new platform and smart meters, all of us will have a better understanding of our own energy usage. This is a huge opportunity for us all to save money and fight global warming by reducing our power usage.Studies show that with access to your homes personal energy information, it’s likely to save you between 5-15% on your monthly electric bill. For every six households that save 10% on electricity, carbon emissions would be reduce by the equivalent of taking one conventional car off the road.At this time Google’s PowerMeter is in closed beta but hopes that it will eventually be distributed to anyone who has a smart meter. The information from utility companies’ smart meters and energy management devices would be made available to anyone who signs up for access to their home electricity consumption on iGoogle’s homepage.© 2009 PhysOrg.comlast_img read more

Simplifying the process of detecting genuine multiparticle entanglement

first_img Jungnitsch, a Ph.D. student at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information at the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Innsbruck, Austria, has been working on a way to simplify the way that multiparticle entanglement is characterized. Along with Tobias Moroder and Otfried Gühne from the University of Siegen in Germany, Jungnitsch created criteria that can be easily implemented in experiments. Their work is published in Physical Review Letters: “Taming Multiparticle Entanglement.”To thank our 25,000 fans in the Facebook community, this story was posted on the Physorg.com FB page a few hours before going live on the main site“We developed a criterion that can easily be implemented so that others can use it,” Jungnitsch says. “Experimentalists can download it from the Internet and use it to measure entanglement. It provides results that others can understand, helping to let them know that these particles are really entangled.”The team from Austria and Germany used what they call “suitable relaxations” to develop their criteria. The method involves first considering a quantum state involving three particles. If the state can be separated out using different partitions, it is called biseparable. When in a biseparable state, the system is not considered to be entangled. If, however, the quantum state is not biseparable, it can be thought of as genuinely multiparticle-entangled, meaning that all particles are entangled and not only some of them.“There are many states that are entangled in some sense,” Jungnitsch points out, “but it’s not easy to see if they are genuinely entangled. We relaxed the definition a bit, and it still works pretty well. Our method won’t work for all entangled states, but you can still catch the phenomena of entanglement pretty well.” “The point is to make sure that your particles are in a genuinely entangled state,” Jungnitsch continues. “In many cases, you want to know if all of the items prepared are entangled.” Otherwise, for some operations, you might not get the desired results. “When particles are genuinely entangled, they can be useful for a number of operations. Our criteria can help experimentalists verify that the state really is entangled. It’s something useful and practical.”Jungnitsch says that they have already provided the code for download. “It can be used in experiments now,” he says. “We wrote the code and put it on the Internet. Experimentalists can download and then run the code on their own computers as part of their efforts to see whether or not their multiparticle systems are entangled.”Some refining is still possible, however. “We have been working on applying the code to specific states – important states.” Because there are some applications that require certain quantum states, being able to detect whether or not particles have reached those states is important. With some adjustments to the code, it should be possible to characterize such entangled states even more accurately.“Of course, the long view is always quantum computers,” Jungnitsch acknowledges. “But there are other applications for quantum correlations as well. The first step to many of these applications, and to improving quantum information processing, is to verify entangled states. Our efforts can help with that.” (PhysOrg.com) — The ability to entangle particles is considered essential for a number of experiments and applications. While we have seen evidence for quantum entanglement, it is still difficult to detect unambiguously. Multiparticle quantum correlations are especially important for work with optical lattices, superconducting qubits and quantum information processing. “Entanglement in large qubit systems is becoming more important,” Bastian Jungnitsch tells PhysOrg.com. “Unfortunately, the characterization of multiparticle entanglement is difficult.” The structure of multiparticle entanglement for three particles. The team approximates the set of unentangled states (shown in blue) by a larger set (shown with a thick, red border), which has the advantage that the latter is much easier to handle theoretically. This idea leads to an efficient, easily implementable criterion for multiparticle entanglement. The figure was drawn by Bastian Jungnitsch. Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Entanglement can help in classical communication More information: Bastian Jungnitsch, Tobias Moroder, Otfried Gühne, “Taming Multiparticle Entanglement,” Physical Review Letters (2011). Available online: link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.190502 Explore further Citation: Simplifying the process of detecting genuine multiparticle entanglement (2011, May 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-genuine-multiparticle-entanglement.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

New satellite data on melting of Himalayan glaciers

first_img Now a new study using satellite data from NASA’s Ice Cloud and land Elevation satellite (ICESat) combined with radar data collected in 2000 from the space shuttle Endeavour, suggests the loss of ice among the approximately 46,000 glaciers in the Himalayas and Tibet averaged 12 billion tonnes annually between 2003 and 2008. This figure is still around a third lower than estimates from field studies in the region.Leader of the new study, Prof. Dr. Andreas Kääb, of the University of Oslo in Norway, said that ICESat, launched in 2003, uses a laser altimeter to study the polar ice sheets, which is more suitable for flat terrains than the mountains of the Himalayas. They corrected for this by using measurements of elevation from the space shuttle, and cross-checking elevation measurements of the glaciers against those of adjacent areas to satisfy themselves that reductions in elevation of the glaciers were really caused by loss of ice.The research team were able to produce a map of the glaciers with a resolution of 70 meters, and showed that over the period of 2003 to 2008 the elevation reduced by an average of 21 centimeters a year. Professor Kääb noted that glaciers are not all melting at the same rate, and a few are static or even growing. In Karakoram the glaciers are barely changing, while in the north west of India glaciers are melting at the estimated rate of 66 centimeters annually. He also said the studies would need to span several decades to confirm any climate trends. What the study does do is give scientists a new means of using the ICESat data, and the results also suggest the long-held theory that ice melting is reduced if the glacier has an insulating covering of rocky debris may be wrong, since their results indicate these glaciers (such as Ngozumpa in Nepal) are melting at about the same rate as clean glaciers.Changes in glaciers in high mountainous regions such as the Himalayas can have marked effects on water resources for the millions of people living in the region and can pose significant hazards through effects such as glacial floods and rock avalanches. Explore further Citation: New satellite data on melting of Himalayan glaciers (2012, August 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-satellite-himalayan-glaciers.html NASA Ice Satellite Maps Profound Polar Thinning This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2012.11252 © 2012 Phys.Org Journal information: Nature (Phys.org)—There is consensus among scientists that the glaciers in the Himalayas and Tibet are shrinking, but there is disagreement on the extent of the shrinkage because of the difficulty in interpreting satellite data. In 2010 satellite data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite was analyzed and the researchers concluded the glaciers were losing around 50 billion tonnes of ice each year, but the same data was interpreted earlier this year by another team of researchers who concluded the annual loss of ice was around five billion tonnes.last_img read more

Why Are Area 51 Conspiracy Theories So Popular Heres What Psychologists Say

first_imgArea 51 has been much in the news lately, ever since the June 27 launch of the Facebook page named “Storm Area 51, They Can’t Stop All of Us.” The crowdsourced semi-satirical raid on the secretive Air Force base is scheduled for Sept. 20 at 3:00 a.m. So far, 1.9 million people have said they’re going, and another 1.4 million have clicked that they’re interested, attracted by the page’s decidedly straightforward appeal: “Let’s see them aliens.” Here’s hoping there are aliens at Area 51. For one thing: they probably have cool spaceships. For another, the extraterrestrials are said to have arrived in 1947, so if they were going to eat us, they likely would have done so by now. Finally, answer this question: What’s more interesting, a world with aliens or a world without them? …center_img In some ways, Area 51 rumors have a lot in common with every other conspiracy theory throughout history. According to a 2017 paper in Current Issues in Psychological Science by psychologist Karen Douglas of England’s University of Kent and her colleagues, nearly all conspiracy theories satisfy three basic needs: they provide understanding and certainty, they create a sense of control and security, and they improve a believer’s self-image. Read the whole story: TIMElast_img read more

All about XRay vision

first_imgSo what’s X-ray art?My X-ray works are the result of my own personal mysticism which is a journey fuelled by my often disjunctive curiosity. So while the X-ray in its everyday, medical sense is a revealer of our physical inner self through my work it becomes something more than its mere function. In a sense it becomes a mystical viewfinder that creates its own drama with the play of light, shadows and perspectives.Do you use mixed media in your work as well? How is it done? Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Yes I have and they work in tandem with the X-rays by enveloping or containing them in order to give them another, totally different context. For example in my work titled Greening of Icarus I have created a pair of wings from an arched window panel that I found in an old furniture shop. The wings whose panes have different X-rays are covered in synthetic grass and together they stand for the Greek hero Icarus who was the first man to fly. What  subjects interest you? Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAnything that is below the belt or taboo (laughs) or constitutes a conceptual iceberg in the sense that it is more hidden than it is visible. But on a serious note you must understand that my medium is also not without its risks as it involves exposure to X-ray radiation so a lot of my actual work happens inside the head and only when I am absolutely certain of the result I go for the actual making of the work. But my themes are usually dark and mystical, or things that need to be seen in their skeletal form in order to be understood completely. What intrigued you about X-ray art and since when have you been painting?As an artist I am drawn most to the mysteries of the mind, especially the mind in its incapacitated state or what we colloquially call being ‘mental’ state… it’s like picking up the exception to prove the rule. Since I grew up very close to a mental institution because my mother was working there, my radar picked up these psychic signals from these very broken people or people who had an extremely distorted vision of reality. Why did you switch from journalism to art?There wasn’t really a switch, I just started telling my stories in a different medium, using a different skill set. Much of work is informed by my reading, by what I see happening around me and from generally being alive to my surroundings. In fact that’s what makes my work quite unique, if I may say so myself (smiles).What are the new works you are concentrating on?My last solo show was called Inner Eye and it was held at a gallery which is inside Amber Fort in Jaipur. This show allowed me to sort of discover a new dimension to my practice. How it can carry our extremely rich architectural heritage with what we today refer to as contemporary art. For this show I made a work called Trapped in Air where I morphed the traditional jaali work that is usually made of stone into plastic and I inserted my X-rays as a comment on the hidden-ness of space in context. The traditional jaali though beautiful was also used to segregate women from the public eye and so it also became a method of control both physical and mental. I use three different plastic jaalis oddly suspended in air with the help of nylon strings thereby freeing them from their usual connotation of separation and control.last_img read more

Music and some Barefaced lies

first_imgAll set for a killer show on the 4th of the month in a city cafe, Barefaced Liars shares some insights in a candid conversation. Read on! What does music mean to you?Its pretty subjective though. But music is something I do and plan to do more and more. Its much more than a profession for me. Its passion actually.Has forming a band been a lucrative option in terms of money?It does take time but in the recent years there has been an expansion in the music circle. We have performed and been a part of many corporate gigs and private shows, so money did come in. Also there are definitely many opportunities and sponsors for music promotion now. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’How did your parents react towards your decision of forming a band?Like all other parents, they too were apprehensive. But the fact is parents won’t take you seriously till you take anything seriously. You are merely five year old in the music scene. What are your comments on the existing competition?We started playing in 2008 and since then it has been a serious business for us. Competition is healthy and we concentrate more on making independent music rather than feeling insecure. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixWhat is the music genre you mostly play?We play multiple genres, from Blues to Hindustani Classical we have done it all.Where do you derive the inspiration for your original compositions from?Well the topics range from personal relationships to social issues happening around and wide in the countries. Random but meaningful material.Where does the name Barefaced Liar came about from?Honestly we did not give too much thought for this name, there is no specific meaning. It implies to anyone in different situations and how we often lie (small or big) to escape any situation. We leave it to the listeners for further comprehension.What are your future plans?The plan is to take our band on the International platform now. We have already been a part of a corporate gig at Thailand.What is the most memorable moment as a band? The first would be the launch of our debut album since it took almost two years to promote and is still yet to release. The second would be when our songs- Mirage and Glow received acclaim as semi finalists from the UK songwriters contest for 2009 and 2010.Are there any disagreements within your band members? How do you resolve them?When you are constantly surrounded by the same people there are bound to be conflicts and disagreements. But our conflicts are all constructive and a collaborative efforts which leads us to make good music.DETAILAt- Hard Rock Cafe, DLF place, Saket When- 4 AprilTimings- 9 pm onwardslast_img read more

Coired up

first_imgThe exhibition was inaugurated by the Coir Board chairman, Prof G. Balachandran.The 11-day sales exhibition of handicrafts, geo-textiles, pith and wood, all made of coir will be on display till 30 November. Items on display at the exhibition include uniquely crafted handicrafts such as coir bags, UV-resistant toys, ornaments and similar gift articles as well.Coir Board’s Pavillion, at the ongoing India International Trade Fair in Delhi, is showcasing a technology for bioconversion of coir pith into organic manure. It is a perfect option for potted plants and kitchen garden; and is especially ideal for growing flowers like rose, orchids, and anthuriums besides vegetables such as tomato and cucumber. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Coir pith in eco-friendly containers is put up for sale at Pragati Maidan as part of the India International Trade Fair and will be on display also at Dilli Haat and Chetanalaya later this week. Coir pith, a byproduct of industries that use coconuts, is finding itself remodelled virtually as soil which is conditioned for plants to grow. That is courtesy Coir Board’s invention of a technology for bioconversion of coir pith into organic manure.WHEN: On till 30 NovemberWHERE: Dilli Haatlast_img read more

Going the Indian Ocean way

first_imgThe contemporary fusion music band members, known to drive fans into frenzy, were also present at the event to mesmerize the audience. The author and the band members together revealed the band’s behind the scene story.Formed in the early 90’s Indian Ocean has been one of the spearheads of the Indian Rock Scene. Their unique sound of Contemporary Rock mixed with classical, jazz and fusion have earned them a cult following.Their band has managed to maintain this inimitable sound in all their albums and have attained some rave reviews from the critics. Some of the themes of their songs are Sufism, environmentalism and mythology. Definitely exclusive in what they do, Indian Ocean have toured all over India and played all across the globe. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Parragon Publishing, which is the largest illustrated non-fiction publisher in the world, will be coming out with a book on the band soon, which is a first of its kind for a music band in India. It is a significant accomplishment for the band, as the publishing house in the past has done such books on iconic musicians like Michael Jackson, Rolling Stones, The Beatles, Elvis Presley and John Lennon among others.The core thought behind the book is the fact that Indian Ocean has a huge, ardent fan following – who would love to know and see parts of the journey of the band, which is more than two decades and still going strong. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe band has had staggering achievements over the years and the book unfolds the unique story of four untrained young musicians making a band. It has been a long, eventful career with an inventory of many firsts. Indian Ocean was the first band to release a Live album – Desert Rain continues to sell even 17 years after it was recorded almost as an afterthought! Indian Ocean is the first band to release a Live DVD.They were the first band ever in India to have a documentary made on them. The film Leaving Home, directed by Jaideep Varma won the National award and is the first ever indigenous documentary film to have achieved a commercial release in the country. Adding to the list of firsts, is the book on them by Parragon Publishing India.last_img read more

Presiding officer run over by train says N Dinajpur DM

first_imgBalurghat: North Dinajpur District Magistrate Ayesha Rani A in a press conference on Wednesday evening said presiding officer Rajkumar Roy whose body was found beside a railway track might have been run over by a train.However, she said the CID has been told to conduct a thorough investigation to reveal Roy’s mystery death following the direction of the State Election Commission.Meanwhile, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, while addressing a Press conference at Nabanna, said she would definitely look into the compensation aspect. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsSome of the polling personnel who had assisted Roy at booth no 48 of Itahar block on Monday’s poll who attended the Press meeting, said there was no untoward incident as such. They said Roy had left the booth but did not come back.The mutilated body of Roy was found along the tracks located in Raiganj’s Sonadangi area by the locals on Tuesday. Apparently, it was apprehended that Roy was murdered as his body lay in a pool of blood beside the tracks. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedRoy was posted as an assistant teacher of English in Rahatpur High madarsa of Karandighi. Around 8 pm on Monday, intimating other polling personnel, he left for the toilet but didn’t return. His phone was also switched off. A missing complaint was lodged at the police station by the concerned BDO. Roy hailed from Siliguri’s Phansidewa. He is survived by his wife and two children.On Wednesday, the polling personnel, mostly school teachers, hit the street in Raiganj claiming that Roy was first abducted and then murdered. They raised the issue of ‘insecurity of polling personnel’ and had also boycotted counting duty on Thursday and resorted to a demonstration.Police superintendent Shyam Singh said he had been informed about the incident of the train accident that supposedly claimed Roy’s life by the GRP on Tuesday. He also claimed that the polling had been peacefully conducted where Roy was deployed.last_img read more