Scientists Turn Tequila into Diamonds

first_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The key to the surprising discovery is tequila’s ratio of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, which lies within the “diamond growth region.” The resulting diamond films could have inexpensive commercial applications as electrical insulators, say researchers Javier Morales, Luis Miguel Apátiga, and Víctor Manuel Castaño from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Morales is also with Nuevo León´s Autonomous University).Originally, the scientists were experimenting with creating diamonds from organic solutions such as acetone, ethanol, and methanol. They found that diluting ethanol in water resulted in high quality diamond films. The scientists then noticed that the ideal compound of 40 percent ethanol and 60 percent water was similar to the proportion used in tequila.”To dissipate any doubts, one morning on the way to the lab I bought a pocket-size bottle of cheap white tequila and we did some tests,” Apátiga said. “We were in doubt over whether the great amount of chemicals present in tequila, other than water and ethanol, would contaminate or obstruct the process, it turned out to be not so. The results were amazing, same as with the ethanol and water compound, we obtained almost spherical shaped diamonds of nanometric size. There is no doubt; tequila has the exact proportion of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms necessary to form diamonds.” In their experiments, the scientists grew the diamond films using “pulsed liquid injection chemical vapor deposition techniques.” In a specially made device, they heated the liquid tequila to 280 ºC (536 ºF) to transform it into a gas. In a reaction chamber, they heated the gas to 800 ºC (1470 ºF) to break down its molecular structure, resulting in solid diamond crystals of about 100-400 nm. The crystals fell onto silicon or stainless steel trays, accumulating in a thin, uniform film. The high temperatures removed all of the tequila´s carbon impurities to result in pure diamonds.The final diamond film was hard and heat-resistant – properties that could make the diamond useful as coatings for cutting tools, high-power semiconductors, radiation detectors and optical-electronic devices, the scientists explained. They plan to begin industrial-scale applications around 2011, and hope to interest a tequila producer in widening its market beyond the traditional beverage. For now, the scientists are continuing to test different tequilas´ abilities to produce diamonds. They´re also working on creating doped diamonds, which contain impurities, to serve as semiconductors.More information: “Growth of Diamond Films from Tequila”© 2009 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Whoever thought that science was a dry subject might change their mind after learning about a new discovery in which tequila is turned into diamonds. A team of Mexican scientists found that the heated vapor from 80-proof (40% alcohol) tequila blanco, when deposited on a silicon or stainless steel substrate, can form diamond films. The 2009 Ig Nobel prizewinners Various tequila bottles in sunlight. Image credit: Aaron Sherman (c) 2005. Citation: Scientists Turn Tequila into Diamonds (2008, November 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-11-scientists-tequila-diamonds.htmllast_img read more

Googles PowerMeter Will Help Reduce Energy Consumption Video

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Google’s PowerMeter Will Help Reduce Energy Consumption (Video) (2009, February 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-02-google-powermeter-energy-consumption-video.html Explore further Clean energy from local producers The data collected from these smart devices is displayed on a graph and shows the amount of power used and which device is using it at any given period of time. This will allow people to make smart decisions on how to better manage their energy consumption. (Physorg.com) — Google.org has announced “PowerMeter”, a platform that will help users track their home electricity usage in real-time on their home computer. This platform will receive data from “smart meters” and other electricity management devices that will collect detailed data on energy consumption. Video: Google PowerMeter Video ClipWith this new platform and smart meters, all of us will have a better understanding of our own energy usage. This is a huge opportunity for us all to save money and fight global warming by reducing our power usage.Studies show that with access to your homes personal energy information, it’s likely to save you between 5-15% on your monthly electric bill. For every six households that save 10% on electricity, carbon emissions would be reduce by the equivalent of taking one conventional car off the road.At this time Google’s PowerMeter is in closed beta but hopes that it will eventually be distributed to anyone who has a smart meter. The information from utility companies’ smart meters and energy management devices would be made available to anyone who signs up for access to their home electricity consumption on iGoogle’s homepage.© 2009 PhysOrg.comlast_img read more

Simplifying the process of detecting genuine multiparticle entanglement

first_img Jungnitsch, a Ph.D. student at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information at the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Innsbruck, Austria, has been working on a way to simplify the way that multiparticle entanglement is characterized. Along with Tobias Moroder and Otfried Gühne from the University of Siegen in Germany, Jungnitsch created criteria that can be easily implemented in experiments. Their work is published in Physical Review Letters: “Taming Multiparticle Entanglement.”To thank our 25,000 fans in the Facebook community, this story was posted on the Physorg.com FB page a few hours before going live on the main site“We developed a criterion that can easily be implemented so that others can use it,” Jungnitsch says. “Experimentalists can download it from the Internet and use it to measure entanglement. It provides results that others can understand, helping to let them know that these particles are really entangled.”The team from Austria and Germany used what they call “suitable relaxations” to develop their criteria. The method involves first considering a quantum state involving three particles. If the state can be separated out using different partitions, it is called biseparable. When in a biseparable state, the system is not considered to be entangled. If, however, the quantum state is not biseparable, it can be thought of as genuinely multiparticle-entangled, meaning that all particles are entangled and not only some of them.“There are many states that are entangled in some sense,” Jungnitsch points out, “but it’s not easy to see if they are genuinely entangled. We relaxed the definition a bit, and it still works pretty well. Our method won’t work for all entangled states, but you can still catch the phenomena of entanglement pretty well.” “The point is to make sure that your particles are in a genuinely entangled state,” Jungnitsch continues. “In many cases, you want to know if all of the items prepared are entangled.” Otherwise, for some operations, you might not get the desired results. “When particles are genuinely entangled, they can be useful for a number of operations. Our criteria can help experimentalists verify that the state really is entangled. It’s something useful and practical.”Jungnitsch says that they have already provided the code for download. “It can be used in experiments now,” he says. “We wrote the code and put it on the Internet. Experimentalists can download and then run the code on their own computers as part of their efforts to see whether or not their multiparticle systems are entangled.”Some refining is still possible, however. “We have been working on applying the code to specific states – important states.” Because there are some applications that require certain quantum states, being able to detect whether or not particles have reached those states is important. With some adjustments to the code, it should be possible to characterize such entangled states even more accurately.“Of course, the long view is always quantum computers,” Jungnitsch acknowledges. “But there are other applications for quantum correlations as well. The first step to many of these applications, and to improving quantum information processing, is to verify entangled states. Our efforts can help with that.” (PhysOrg.com) — The ability to entangle particles is considered essential for a number of experiments and applications. While we have seen evidence for quantum entanglement, it is still difficult to detect unambiguously. Multiparticle quantum correlations are especially important for work with optical lattices, superconducting qubits and quantum information processing. “Entanglement in large qubit systems is becoming more important,” Bastian Jungnitsch tells PhysOrg.com. “Unfortunately, the characterization of multiparticle entanglement is difficult.” The structure of multiparticle entanglement for three particles. The team approximates the set of unentangled states (shown in blue) by a larger set (shown with a thick, red border), which has the advantage that the latter is much easier to handle theoretically. This idea leads to an efficient, easily implementable criterion for multiparticle entanglement. The figure was drawn by Bastian Jungnitsch. Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Entanglement can help in classical communication More information: Bastian Jungnitsch, Tobias Moroder, Otfried Gühne, “Taming Multiparticle Entanglement,” Physical Review Letters (2011). Available online: link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.190502 Explore further Citation: Simplifying the process of detecting genuine multiparticle entanglement (2011, May 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-genuine-multiparticle-entanglement.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

New satellite data on melting of Himalayan glaciers

first_img Now a new study using satellite data from NASA’s Ice Cloud and land Elevation satellite (ICESat) combined with radar data collected in 2000 from the space shuttle Endeavour, suggests the loss of ice among the approximately 46,000 glaciers in the Himalayas and Tibet averaged 12 billion tonnes annually between 2003 and 2008. This figure is still around a third lower than estimates from field studies in the region.Leader of the new study, Prof. Dr. Andreas Kääb, of the University of Oslo in Norway, said that ICESat, launched in 2003, uses a laser altimeter to study the polar ice sheets, which is more suitable for flat terrains than the mountains of the Himalayas. They corrected for this by using measurements of elevation from the space shuttle, and cross-checking elevation measurements of the glaciers against those of adjacent areas to satisfy themselves that reductions in elevation of the glaciers were really caused by loss of ice.The research team were able to produce a map of the glaciers with a resolution of 70 meters, and showed that over the period of 2003 to 2008 the elevation reduced by an average of 21 centimeters a year. Professor Kääb noted that glaciers are not all melting at the same rate, and a few are static or even growing. In Karakoram the glaciers are barely changing, while in the north west of India glaciers are melting at the estimated rate of 66 centimeters annually. He also said the studies would need to span several decades to confirm any climate trends. What the study does do is give scientists a new means of using the ICESat data, and the results also suggest the long-held theory that ice melting is reduced if the glacier has an insulating covering of rocky debris may be wrong, since their results indicate these glaciers (such as Ngozumpa in Nepal) are melting at about the same rate as clean glaciers.Changes in glaciers in high mountainous regions such as the Himalayas can have marked effects on water resources for the millions of people living in the region and can pose significant hazards through effects such as glacial floods and rock avalanches. Explore further Citation: New satellite data on melting of Himalayan glaciers (2012, August 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-satellite-himalayan-glaciers.html NASA Ice Satellite Maps Profound Polar Thinning This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2012.11252 © 2012 Phys.Org Journal information: Nature (Phys.org)—There is consensus among scientists that the glaciers in the Himalayas and Tibet are shrinking, but there is disagreement on the extent of the shrinkage because of the difficulty in interpreting satellite data. In 2010 satellite data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite was analyzed and the researchers concluded the glaciers were losing around 50 billion tonnes of ice each year, but the same data was interpreted earlier this year by another team of researchers who concluded the annual loss of ice was around five billion tonnes.last_img read more

Why Are Area 51 Conspiracy Theories So Popular Heres What Psychologists Say

first_imgArea 51 has been much in the news lately, ever since the June 27 launch of the Facebook page named “Storm Area 51, They Can’t Stop All of Us.” The crowdsourced semi-satirical raid on the secretive Air Force base is scheduled for Sept. 20 at 3:00 a.m. So far, 1.9 million people have said they’re going, and another 1.4 million have clicked that they’re interested, attracted by the page’s decidedly straightforward appeal: “Let’s see them aliens.” Here’s hoping there are aliens at Area 51. For one thing: they probably have cool spaceships. For another, the extraterrestrials are said to have arrived in 1947, so if they were going to eat us, they likely would have done so by now. Finally, answer this question: What’s more interesting, a world with aliens or a world without them? …center_img In some ways, Area 51 rumors have a lot in common with every other conspiracy theory throughout history. According to a 2017 paper in Current Issues in Psychological Science by psychologist Karen Douglas of England’s University of Kent and her colleagues, nearly all conspiracy theories satisfy three basic needs: they provide understanding and certainty, they create a sense of control and security, and they improve a believer’s self-image. Read the whole story: TIMElast_img read more

All about XRay vision

first_imgSo what’s X-ray art?My X-ray works are the result of my own personal mysticism which is a journey fuelled by my often disjunctive curiosity. So while the X-ray in its everyday, medical sense is a revealer of our physical inner self through my work it becomes something more than its mere function. In a sense it becomes a mystical viewfinder that creates its own drama with the play of light, shadows and perspectives.Do you use mixed media in your work as well? How is it done? Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Yes I have and they work in tandem with the X-rays by enveloping or containing them in order to give them another, totally different context. For example in my work titled Greening of Icarus I have created a pair of wings from an arched window panel that I found in an old furniture shop. The wings whose panes have different X-rays are covered in synthetic grass and together they stand for the Greek hero Icarus who was the first man to fly. What  subjects interest you? Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAnything that is below the belt or taboo (laughs) or constitutes a conceptual iceberg in the sense that it is more hidden than it is visible. But on a serious note you must understand that my medium is also not without its risks as it involves exposure to X-ray radiation so a lot of my actual work happens inside the head and only when I am absolutely certain of the result I go for the actual making of the work. But my themes are usually dark and mystical, or things that need to be seen in their skeletal form in order to be understood completely. What intrigued you about X-ray art and since when have you been painting?As an artist I am drawn most to the mysteries of the mind, especially the mind in its incapacitated state or what we colloquially call being ‘mental’ state… it’s like picking up the exception to prove the rule. Since I grew up very close to a mental institution because my mother was working there, my radar picked up these psychic signals from these very broken people or people who had an extremely distorted vision of reality. Why did you switch from journalism to art?There wasn’t really a switch, I just started telling my stories in a different medium, using a different skill set. Much of work is informed by my reading, by what I see happening around me and from generally being alive to my surroundings. In fact that’s what makes my work quite unique, if I may say so myself (smiles).What are the new works you are concentrating on?My last solo show was called Inner Eye and it was held at a gallery which is inside Amber Fort in Jaipur. This show allowed me to sort of discover a new dimension to my practice. How it can carry our extremely rich architectural heritage with what we today refer to as contemporary art. For this show I made a work called Trapped in Air where I morphed the traditional jaali work that is usually made of stone into plastic and I inserted my X-rays as a comment on the hidden-ness of space in context. The traditional jaali though beautiful was also used to segregate women from the public eye and so it also became a method of control both physical and mental. I use three different plastic jaalis oddly suspended in air with the help of nylon strings thereby freeing them from their usual connotation of separation and control.last_img read more

Music and some Barefaced lies

first_imgAll set for a killer show on the 4th of the month in a city cafe, Barefaced Liars shares some insights in a candid conversation. Read on! What does music mean to you?Its pretty subjective though. But music is something I do and plan to do more and more. Its much more than a profession for me. Its passion actually.Has forming a band been a lucrative option in terms of money?It does take time but in the recent years there has been an expansion in the music circle. We have performed and been a part of many corporate gigs and private shows, so money did come in. Also there are definitely many opportunities and sponsors for music promotion now. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’How did your parents react towards your decision of forming a band?Like all other parents, they too were apprehensive. But the fact is parents won’t take you seriously till you take anything seriously. You are merely five year old in the music scene. What are your comments on the existing competition?We started playing in 2008 and since then it has been a serious business for us. Competition is healthy and we concentrate more on making independent music rather than feeling insecure. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixWhat is the music genre you mostly play?We play multiple genres, from Blues to Hindustani Classical we have done it all.Where do you derive the inspiration for your original compositions from?Well the topics range from personal relationships to social issues happening around and wide in the countries. Random but meaningful material.Where does the name Barefaced Liar came about from?Honestly we did not give too much thought for this name, there is no specific meaning. It implies to anyone in different situations and how we often lie (small or big) to escape any situation. We leave it to the listeners for further comprehension.What are your future plans?The plan is to take our band on the International platform now. We have already been a part of a corporate gig at Thailand.What is the most memorable moment as a band? The first would be the launch of our debut album since it took almost two years to promote and is still yet to release. The second would be when our songs- Mirage and Glow received acclaim as semi finalists from the UK songwriters contest for 2009 and 2010.Are there any disagreements within your band members? How do you resolve them?When you are constantly surrounded by the same people there are bound to be conflicts and disagreements. But our conflicts are all constructive and a collaborative efforts which leads us to make good music.DETAILAt- Hard Rock Cafe, DLF place, Saket When- 4 AprilTimings- 9 pm onwardslast_img read more

Coired up

first_imgThe exhibition was inaugurated by the Coir Board chairman, Prof G. Balachandran.The 11-day sales exhibition of handicrafts, geo-textiles, pith and wood, all made of coir will be on display till 30 November. Items on display at the exhibition include uniquely crafted handicrafts such as coir bags, UV-resistant toys, ornaments and similar gift articles as well.Coir Board’s Pavillion, at the ongoing India International Trade Fair in Delhi, is showcasing a technology for bioconversion of coir pith into organic manure. It is a perfect option for potted plants and kitchen garden; and is especially ideal for growing flowers like rose, orchids, and anthuriums besides vegetables such as tomato and cucumber. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Coir pith in eco-friendly containers is put up for sale at Pragati Maidan as part of the India International Trade Fair and will be on display also at Dilli Haat and Chetanalaya later this week. Coir pith, a byproduct of industries that use coconuts, is finding itself remodelled virtually as soil which is conditioned for plants to grow. That is courtesy Coir Board’s invention of a technology for bioconversion of coir pith into organic manure.WHEN: On till 30 NovemberWHERE: Dilli Haatlast_img read more

Going the Indian Ocean way

first_imgThe contemporary fusion music band members, known to drive fans into frenzy, were also present at the event to mesmerize the audience. The author and the band members together revealed the band’s behind the scene story.Formed in the early 90’s Indian Ocean has been one of the spearheads of the Indian Rock Scene. Their unique sound of Contemporary Rock mixed with classical, jazz and fusion have earned them a cult following.Their band has managed to maintain this inimitable sound in all their albums and have attained some rave reviews from the critics. Some of the themes of their songs are Sufism, environmentalism and mythology. Definitely exclusive in what they do, Indian Ocean have toured all over India and played all across the globe. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Parragon Publishing, which is the largest illustrated non-fiction publisher in the world, will be coming out with a book on the band soon, which is a first of its kind for a music band in India. It is a significant accomplishment for the band, as the publishing house in the past has done such books on iconic musicians like Michael Jackson, Rolling Stones, The Beatles, Elvis Presley and John Lennon among others.The core thought behind the book is the fact that Indian Ocean has a huge, ardent fan following – who would love to know and see parts of the journey of the band, which is more than two decades and still going strong. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe band has had staggering achievements over the years and the book unfolds the unique story of four untrained young musicians making a band. It has been a long, eventful career with an inventory of many firsts. Indian Ocean was the first band to release a Live album – Desert Rain continues to sell even 17 years after it was recorded almost as an afterthought! Indian Ocean is the first band to release a Live DVD.They were the first band ever in India to have a documentary made on them. The film Leaving Home, directed by Jaideep Varma won the National award and is the first ever indigenous documentary film to have achieved a commercial release in the country. Adding to the list of firsts, is the book on them by Parragon Publishing India.last_img read more

Presiding officer run over by train says N Dinajpur DM

first_imgBalurghat: North Dinajpur District Magistrate Ayesha Rani A in a press conference on Wednesday evening said presiding officer Rajkumar Roy whose body was found beside a railway track might have been run over by a train.However, she said the CID has been told to conduct a thorough investigation to reveal Roy’s mystery death following the direction of the State Election Commission.Meanwhile, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, while addressing a Press conference at Nabanna, said she would definitely look into the compensation aspect. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsSome of the polling personnel who had assisted Roy at booth no 48 of Itahar block on Monday’s poll who attended the Press meeting, said there was no untoward incident as such. They said Roy had left the booth but did not come back.The mutilated body of Roy was found along the tracks located in Raiganj’s Sonadangi area by the locals on Tuesday. Apparently, it was apprehended that Roy was murdered as his body lay in a pool of blood beside the tracks. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedRoy was posted as an assistant teacher of English in Rahatpur High madarsa of Karandighi. Around 8 pm on Monday, intimating other polling personnel, he left for the toilet but didn’t return. His phone was also switched off. A missing complaint was lodged at the police station by the concerned BDO. Roy hailed from Siliguri’s Phansidewa. He is survived by his wife and two children.On Wednesday, the polling personnel, mostly school teachers, hit the street in Raiganj claiming that Roy was first abducted and then murdered. They raised the issue of ‘insecurity of polling personnel’ and had also boycotted counting duty on Thursday and resorted to a demonstration.Police superintendent Shyam Singh said he had been informed about the incident of the train accident that supposedly claimed Roy’s life by the GRP on Tuesday. He also claimed that the polling had been peacefully conducted where Roy was deployed.last_img read more

Professor Shonku now on celluloid

first_imgOne of the most popular and well known characters in Bengali science, Professor Shonku will come back to life as SVF, eastern India’s largest production house is all set to produce a Bengali feature film on the same. Featuring the fictional scientist created and popularised by the maestro, legendary writer-filmmaker Satyajit Ray, befittingly, the film will be directed by none other than Sandip Ray – a renowned filmmaker in his own right. The film is an adaptation of one of the most spell-binding stories in the Professor Shonku series called Nakur Babu O El Dorado. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfShooting of the film begins early next year, and the film is likely to release by the end of 2018. Veteran actor Dhritiman Chatterjee will play the lead role of Professor Trilokeshwar Shonku (his full name), an eccentric inventor who lived in Giridih with his servant Prahlad and cat Newton. Subhashis Mukherjee will play Nakur Babu. The title of the film is – Professor Shonkhu o El Dorado. As the popular Nakur Babu tale is set to morph into a movie for the first time, SVF co-founder and Director Shrikant Mohta announced, “We are elated to make a film on Professor Shonku, who, over the years, has delighted and captivated fans of all ages, especially children and teenagers, through a series of science stories that have defied beliefs. The stories written by the great Satyajit Ray, will come alive at the hands of gifted director Sandip Ray, and we at SVF will ensure that the first Professor Shonku film sets new standards for the creative and technical excellence that are the hallmarks of all our content.” Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveDirector Sandip Ray said, “I have always wanted to make a film on Professor Shonku. Such a character is unparalleled in our science fiction. Books, with the written word, are like the theatre of the mind, and every reader conjures his or her own picture of their favourite character. In that sense, therefore, it will be an interesting challenge to take the fictional character of Professor Shonku, the highly talented inventor with quirky manners and who was way ahead of his time, and to bring him convincingly to life on celluloid. I am looking forward to doing this with the veteran actor Dhritiman Chatterjee and the commitment of SVF by my side.” Mahendra Soni, SVF co-founder and Director, said, “It is a great honour for us at SVF to be able to do a film on Professor Shonku, who has been close to the hearts of millions of lovers of Bengali fiction for years now. We are certain that audience will enjoy watching this incredible scientist.”Writer and maker of the detective Feluda series, Satyajit Ray has modelled Professor Shonku on Professor Challenger (of the Arthur Conan Doyle books) and Hesoram Hushiar, a character of Sukumar Ray, writer and father of Satyajit Ray. Son of Dr Tripureshwar Shonku, Trilokeshwar Shonku was a precocious child who passed matriculation when he was barely 12, and B.Sc. with honours in physics and chemistry at merely 16 years of age. A polyglot with knowledge of 69 languages, he became a professor at Kolkata’s Scottish Church College at the young age of 20.last_img read more

Super foods to be included in your beauty regimen

first_imgSuper foods are no longer just to be found at the grocery store. They’re now taking over the beauty aisles too. Nutrient packed foods are popping up nowadays to give your hair and skin that much needed boost so go for it girls. Basil extracts can work wonders for your hair. This infusion rejuvenates hair follicles, keeps your scalp cool, and also promotes circulation. Sugarcane extracts are an excellent source of minerals that support hair growth. Sugarcane is often termed a health drink as it contains vitamins like vitamin B12, vitamin C and vitamin A along with other elements like zinc, potassium manganese and calcium. All these nutrients together make up the ingredients of long shiny hair. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfApples have fibre content called pyrus malus. This type of fibre can serve as a balancing of pH levels in the hair and helps clean the dirt from the scalp so you can be free of dandruff. Using products infused with Olive Oil can reduce dandruff flakes and help retain moisture in the hair Avocado extracts are great when used in the hair mask. It nourishes as well as strengthens leaving the hair full of life. Grapefruits are fruits that are high in fibre and low in calories, and they contain bio-flavonoids and other plant chemicals that protect against serious diseases. The vitamin C and the antioxidant effects protect the skin from environmental hazards. It also stimulates the production of skin collagen that brings smoothness and elasticity to the skin. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe retinol antioxidant gives the skin softness and, renews damaged skin. The potassium present in the grapefruit helps to smooth wrinkles and age spots and provides a protective shield against UV rays. The super food Kiwi is a powerhouse of nutrients and offers a usual array of health promising substances. The kiwi is particularly rich in antioxidant, especially Vitamins C and E as well as polyphenols. Ideal to protect young skin, Kiwi helps to prevent oxidative stress and protect from the damaging effects of pollutants. Kiwi is also an excellent source of Vitamin E that prevents the formation of free radicals that helps you achieve great skin.last_img read more

Information Technology Park opens in Kalimpong

first_imgDarjeeling: An Information Technology (IT) Park was inaugurated by Binay Tamang, chairman, Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA), on Saturday in Kalimpong. Another IT hub will be coming up in Darjeeling too.The IT department of the Bengal government, in association with WEBEL is coming up with IT Parks in different cities of the state. 17 townships have already been identified where IT hubs will come up all over the state. This is to ensure that the IT industry in Bengal is not restricted to Kolkata alone. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata Bose”Children from the Hills who are interested in IT have to leave the Hills for cities where the IT Parks are located. Now, we have an IT Park in the Hills. This is a gift from Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee to the people of the Hills. The process of uploading tender for an IT hub in Darjeeling has already been initiated,” stated Tamang. A G+4 storeyed building of 8,600 square feet built-up space has come up on Upper Cart Road, Kalimpong. This is the first phase of the hub. This will be followed by a standalone IT Park constructed by the state government. The project cost is over Rs 35 crore. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataThe IT complex when complete will comprise 54,200 square feet built-up space with a car park. This area will be converted for MSME start-ups and small IT companies. The park will have 30 air-conditioned modules; 15 plug and play modules and 15 bare shell modules. Tamang stated that he had held a meeting with the Chief Minister on Thursday at Nabanna when she asked him to inaugurate the IT park in Kalimpong. “Confrontation only leads to negativity. Nothing positive comes out of it. At present, there is peace in the Hills. Darjeeling is united. Communities have cordial relations with each other. Progress and development can flourish in such an environment,” claimed Tamang. The GTA chairman further stated that he had a meeting with state Education minister Partha Chatterjee in Kolkata. The Chief Minister had directed that all pending cases of High School teacher appointments were to be cleared immediately. “We have received an order and accordingly handed over the appointments. We have given appointment letters to 59 verified teachers, 14 teachers for non-recognised high schools,” Tamang added. “In the past one year, we have handed out appointments to 1,187 higher secondary teachers. After elections, we will appoint 658 primary school teachers,” he further added.last_img read more

How to get perfect skin for DDay

first_imgThe bridal glow is every bride’s dream. Don’t let the harsh summer come in your way, and work your way towards it by keeping yourself hydrated and moisturised. Here are some easy tips by skin care experts to make you glow on your big day: 4Hydrating is important: Hydrate plenty in summer to combat the heat. The best solution for brides is to use a hydrating lotion. Ideally, water is the best remedy for fixing up your skin as it helps in flushing out toxins from your body making you feel refreshed during the hot days. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf4Cleansing is a must: Use a gentle skin cleanser twice a day with tissue or water. This cleanses without irritation to leave your skin soft and smooth. This mild, soap-free formula removes dirt, make-up, and impurities and also helps retain the skin’s moisture. 4For brides with oily skin, it can be a challenge to cope with make-up. Hence, investing in a cleanser which helps in getting rid of the skin’s grease and grime, is a good bet. It is kind on sensitive skin and perfect for those who suffer from acne. 4Replenish the skin’s moisture: Summer can be harsh on your skin and last-minute breakouts, darkening and dullness can stress out any bride with dry skin. Choose a moisturiser which is light weight, yet rich in macadamia oil which helps to hydrate and nourish the skin. Make sure it is specifically formulated to soothe dry skin and is non-greasy, non-irritating and non-comedogenic since this will eliminate clog pores.last_img read more

Barbaric Customs of the Ancient World

first_imgThe ancient world was not a pretty place. Before civilization was in full swing, many tribes of nomadic people populated the landscapes of Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Some of these tribes would grow in power, enough to create their own civilizations, where others would be doomed to dwindle and vanish into obscurity. If not for the works of early historians, such as Herodotus, many of these tribes would have been lost in time, conquered or eradicated by stronger and bigger tribes.Herodotus was a Greek historian who eschewed the storytelling traditions of preserving history and instead treated history as something worthy of investigating. He did fact-finding, spoke to witnesses and worked to create historical narratives that were grounded more in reality than myth. This isn’t to say that his work was entirely reliable, but without his accounts, we would not have many insights into the history of the ancient world.Herodotus, the Father of History.There are many fascinating accounts provided by Herodotus in his books, known as The Histories. Some stories talk about war, others about leadership failures. There are a great many interesting and fantastical narratives woven through his works. Some stories might be harder to believe than others, and it’s important to take his work with a grain of salt, but he was genuine in his attempts to preserve the history of his time.Asia in 323 BC, showing the Massagetae located in Central Asia. Photo by Talessman CC BY 3.0One story that Herodotus shared was that about the fearsome and strange Massagetae tribe. The Massagetae were a nomadic people who lived in the steppes of Central Asia. Believed to have originated from the Scythian tribes, the prefix “massa” translates to strong or great, thus making their name Strong Getae. And strong they were.Cyrus the GreatThe Massagetae people were fearsome warriors who preferred to wield battle-axes in combat. Skilled with horseback archery, hand to hand combat and brassworking, the tribal warriors were not to be taken lightly. According to Herodotus, it was at the hands of these people that Cyrus the Great finally met his fate. It was said that Cyrus the Great, the powerful king of Persia, sought to take control of the Massagetae’s territory.Mysterious Ancient Societies That DisappearedAt first, he attempted to marry their queen, but was rebuffed. Failing diplomacy, Cyrus took his army and marched onto their territory to seize it by force. It was there that he met with violent resistance from the Massagetae warriors who fought with sheer might. While many Massagetae died that day, they were able to overpower and slay Cyrus, ending the legacy of a mighty man who had conquered many.Perhaps if Cyrus had known more about the rites and customs of the Massagetae, he would have been more hesitant to engage in war with them. For while they were fierce warriors, the Massagetae had one custom that was utterly terrifying and by all standards of the modern world, completely barbaric.Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae, Iran.According to Herodotus’ accounts, few men died of old age within this tribe. Rather, when a man was reaching the end of his life, his family would come together and sacrifice him to their god, the sun. After the sacrificial ceremony, his body would be boiled and ritually served to his gathered family members.Such a practice was thwarted if a man were to die of disease or illness. There would be a great deal of sorrow and agony as they believed that to be sacrificed was a good thing that would bring great happiness to the man who gave up his life to the gods.Ancient Central Asian warriors were said to drink the blood of horses.These cannibalistic practices are undoubtedly disturbing for many people, especially when you consider the fact that the Massagetae elders were willing participants in the sacrifice. However, that was simply life for an ancient people in a dark time period.Read another story from us: Wealthy Europeans consumed ground mummiesThese fierce warriors, who were said to drink the blood of horses, would fade from history, only remembered thanks to the preserved works of The Father of History, Herodotus.Andrew Pourciaux is a novelist hailing from sunny Sarasota, Florida, where he spends the majority of his time writing and podcasting.last_img read more

Ancient Italian Castle in the Sky in Breathtaking Location Now Available to

first_imgIt can be hard to vacation on a budget, especially in places as breathtaking and cultured as Italy. Luckily, there’s a relatively inexpensive but beautiful Italian castle, perched on a breathtaking cliff top, in Roccascalegna, Italy. This castle, built in the 15th and 16th centuries, during the rivalry between Angevin and Aragonese forces, is available to rent — the whole castle — for around $114.Roccascalegna in Abruzzi, Italy.CNN Reports that the site has a troubled past, ravaged by barbarians and pirates as well as enemy combatants. Eventually, it was abandoned and then refurbished for rent to tourists. The castle represents a very different time, and provides a unique opportunity for an affordable adventure into the past in a beautiful, remote location.Due to its storied history, the castle is also a popular destination for ghost hunters, who stay the night hoping to spot the spirit of Baron Corvo de Corvis.Castello di Roccascalegna.The Castle of Roccascalegna overlooks the small town of Roccascalegna, and is popularly known as the “Castle in the Sky.” According to Borghi Magazine, the town dates back to 1160, possibly being expanded from an earlier settlement. The monks from the Church of San Pancrazio were probably present in the region as early as 829.The fortifications were meant to control the valley of the Rio Secco, and defend the area against attacks from the Byzantine Empire. The castle probably started as a watchtower, later being expanded by Norman builders around 1320.Castello di Roccascalegna is a castle from the 11th century with some additional towers and walls from the 16th century. It is located on a steep limestone cliff not far from the Adriatic Coast in the Province of Chieti.Travel and Leisure notes that the castle today consists of a massive 7,500 square foot fortress. It comes complete with all the expected medieval castle features such as a chapel, dungeon, tower, gardens, etc. The site also mentions that the town below is beautiful, dotted with trees, restaurants, stone cottages, and other accoutrements.The castle itself can be rented for a very reasonable fee of around $114. Bookings for weddings and other ceremonies are also available. Domenico Giangiordano, the Mayor of Roccascalegna, hopes that the refurbished castle will boost the town’s tourism and help it deal with its dwindling population.Castello di Roccascalegna in Abruzzi, Italy – June 13, 2013.According to CNN, the town is not accessible by car, and visitors must climb old donkey trails in order to make their way to the castle. This makes Roccascalegna a bit of an involved tourist destination, but the views and the history are well worth it.The castle sits upon a high basalt cliff, towering over the surrounding countryside dotted with fields of flowers and olive trees. The chapel facilitates wedding ceremonies, while locations such as the repurposed dungeons or tower rooms provide excellent venues for business meetings or similar gatherings.The Castle of Roccascalegna, province of Chieti, Abruzzo, Italy.Catering is coordinated between the castle and the village and offers a selection of rustic local foods. Specialties include homemade meatballs with local sheep’s cheese and eggs, olive oil flatbread, lamb skewers, and sweet-and-sour waffles.Wedding planning services are also available to help facilitate weddings that guests may wish to book, complete with specialty wedding cakes available from the catering service.According to Abruzzo Turismo, the Baron of Roccascalegna, Corvo de Corvis, was an especially wretched man who made a point of bedding every girl in the village on her wedding night. This was a medieval tradition, but it wasn’t taken too well by some of the locals.Roccascalegna in Abruzzi, Italy.On a moonless night in 1646, he is said to have met his end when he was stabbed by the girl he was to bed that night. Some versions of the tale say that it was the girl’s husband, wearing women’s clothes.The castle was apparently cursed by the grisly death, and it is said that a bloody imprint of the Baron’s hand can be seen upon the rocks around the castle.Read another story from us: The Mysteries and Ghosts Surrounding Ireland’s Most Haunted CastleAttempts to wash off the horrid mark were apparently unsuccessful, and ghost hunters and skeptics visit the castle to this day, hoping to catch a glimpse of the Baron’s presence.last_img read more

Deserted Irish Island Inhabited by Medieval Monks is Up For Sale

first_imgA remote island off the west coast of Ireland that was once inhabited by medieval monks is up for sale, according to The Guardian. The uninhabited High Island, located two miles off the Galway coast, is listed for sale at €1.25 million, and is known for its 18th century mine and the remains of a medieval monastery founded in the 7th century. Medieval Irish monks were notorious for seeking out remote, exposed and wild spots in which to establish their monasteries.Skellig Michael, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Kerry, Ireland. Scenes for Star Wars: The Force Awakens were filmed on this island.Indeed, early medieval monasteries can be found in some of Ireland’s most isolated and weather-beaten parts of the country, particularly on remote islands off the country’s Atlantic coast.One of the most famous of these islands is Skellig Michael, made famous as the home of Luke Skywalker in the 2017 movie Star Wars: The Last Jedi. The early medieval monks that landed on Skellig Michael built distinctive ‘beehive’-style, dry stone huts known as chlocháns.Skellig Michael Monastery, IrelandHigh Island, 200 miles north off the coast of Connemara, might not have the dramatic craggy appearance of the Skellig but is nevertheless a beautiful natural site.Known as Ardoileán in Irish, it rises approximately 200 feet above sea level and contains two small freshwater lakes. The total size of the island is around 80 acres, corresponding to approximately 60 football fields, according to The Guardian.Irish coastlineThe steep cliffs and gullies that surround the island also provide ample breeding space for a wide variety of bird life, including many species of gulls, barnacle geese, oystercatchers and Arctic terns. Ornithologists are also attracted to the island for the opportunity to spot Manx shearwaters, petrels and even peregrine falcons.Human settlement on the island is evidenced from the Iron Age, and archaeological findings point to human activity possibly stretching as far back as 1000 BC. However, the principal settlement on the island came in the 7th century, when Saint Féchín of Fore (d. 665) brought a group of men to the island and established a religious community.Photo by Nilfanion CC BY SA 3.0St. Féchín was typical of many other Irish holy men in this period. Born into a noble family with royal lineage, he chose a religious life of contemplation, and sought out remote, austere locations in which to establish his new monasteries.The settlement on High Island was one of his earliest foundations, but he would go on to establish the much bigger monastery at Fore, in Country Westmeath. These Irish monks lived short, difficult lives as they struggled to eke out an existence in weather-beaten, challenging terrain.Video: The mystery of the rotating island called “The Eye”:PreviewToday, High Island still bears the marks of these dedicated medieval monks. According to The Guardian, it contains the remains of a number of beehive huts, similar to those on Skellig Michael, and a church, altar and graveyard.Since the Middle Ages, the island has changed hands a number of times. In the 18th century, it was owned by a local family from Galway, who leased it to copper miners, according to The Guardian. The remains of the mine and the stone huts that housed workers may still be seen on the island.However, in 1969 a poet named Richard Murphy from the neighboring island of Inishbofin bought the island, hoping to use it as a space for reflection, contemplation and inspiration for his work. He also wanted to restore the medieval monastic remains and prevent further destruction of its unique heritage.However, the wild winds and rain that battered the island, especially in winter, began to take its toll on the poet, and over time he spent less and less time there.At present, the island offers little shelter for visitors, aside from a small modern building. However, according to The Guardian, auctioneer Luke Spencer noted that this could potentially be extended into a comfortable dwelling, and the new property would enjoy unparalleled 360-degree views of the Atlantic.Any prospective buyers will need to have their own transport, either by boat or helicopter, as the island is not easy to access. The nature here is wild and untamed, and High Island is a place of great beauty and historical significance.Read another story from us: This “Forbidden Island” of Hawaii is Off-Limits to Tourists and ModernityDespite its harsh climate and exposure to the elements, it’s easy to see why those intrepid 7th century monks chose this place to make their retreat from the world.last_img read more

The First 3D Feature Film was Shown in 1922

first_img3D is now an established part of the cinema-going experience which, combined with IMAX, gives audiences bigger thrills and vivid spills. Viewers with long memories will remember earlier efforts from the 1980s such as Jaws 3-D. And those with even longer memories may recall lurid 1950s entries like House of Wax. For the very first feature film presented in 3D however, the chronology stretches all the way back to the Roaring Twenties.1922’s The Power of Love was the first feature-length (or 5 reels long) movie shown to an audience. Sadly the film is believed lost but the website Silent Era quotes a contemporary synopsis, care of Motion Picture World.3D is now an established part of the cinema-going experienceThis reveals an overheated melodrama. Maria (Barbara Bedford) finds herself the victim of her father’s financial problems when promised in lieu of payment to local bigshot Don Alvarez (Albert Prisco). She then falls for male lead Terry O’ Neill (Elliott Sparling). “Just before the wedding, O’Neill waylays Alvarez” the synopsis reads, “and takes his place at a fiesta.”But the villain isn’t beaten yet. “Alvarez appears and denounces” O’Neill, before framing him for the murder of a padre. “Alvarez tries to shoot him, but wounds Maria, who throws herself in front of him.” She survives and goes on to expose Alvarez, resulting in the expected happy ending.Still from ‘The Power of Love’, published in the Exhibitor’s HeraldDespite its innovative nature and good reviews, the movie wasn’t a success in 3D. It only received two showings that way, before a reworked 2D version was released the following year under the title Forbidden Lover.Predating The Power of Love was a famous example of Lumiere Brothers’ locomotive short L’arrivee du train (1903). As written by IGN in 2010, it “depicted an oncoming train roaring into a station. The quality was apparently good enough to convince several members of the audience they were about to be run over.”The Fairall-Elder stereoscopic (3D) cameraIn terms of the technology behind the movie magic, 3D has been worked on almost as long as the industry itself. Many names contributed to the end result.A 2009 Guardian article describes how in 1894 English inventor William Friese Greene filed “a patent application for a 3D viewing process using two screens side by side, united in the viewer’s eye by a cumbersome stereoscope headset.”Harry K. FairallStereoscopic photography required such a system in order to merge the two images into a coherent whole. Six years on and Frederic Eugene Ives, a US inventor, was trying out a new camera rig which used two lenses at once.In 1915 American filmmaker Edwin S. Porter and William E. Waddell introduced an anaglyph technique. An anaglyph, in photographic terms, is when two different-colored images are superimposed.Camera operator Harry K. Fairall and cinematographer Robert F. Elder then came up with another rig that projected dual strips of film. This, combined with progress made by their predecessors, was the process used to exhibit The Power of Love. It was shown at the Ambassador Hotel Theater in Los Angeles.Anaglyph 3D glasses. Photo by Snaily – Own work CC BY-SA 3.0The website Interesting Engineering remarked this year that “Their effort goes down in history as both the earliest known film that utilized dual strip projection and the earliest known film in which anaglyph glasses were used.”To get the 3D effect makeshift lenses — one red, one green — were needed to create a filter and fool the brain in the right way. IGN writes that “Red and Cyan are the most commonly chosen colors because that combination produces less image ghosting than others.”Developments continued in 3D filmmaking, though the basic idea of slipping on a pair of specs was essentially the same. Edwin Land’s Polaroid filters became an industry standard for 3D work, starting with 1952’s lion-hunting adventure Bwana Devil.Audience wearing special glasses watch a 3D stereoscopic film at the Telekinema on the South Bank in London during the Festival of Britain, 1951The early Fifties were a fertile period for 3D. “Thanks to a booming postwar economy,” IGN writes, “more consumers and theater owners were receptive to the new technology. 3D glasses were becoming popularized among children thanks to the numerous 3D comic books and their included anaglyph glasses.” Naturally, superhero flicks are among today’s 3D heavy hitters on the big screen.Overall the business was seen as too cumbersome to really catch on. Notable examples of the highs and lows included profitable sex comedy The Stewardess (1970) and box office flop Spacehunter: Adventures In The Forbidden Zone (1983).Closeup view of young family watching a 3D movie at movie theaterJames Cameron helped bring the format into the 21st century with Titanic exploration documentary Ghosts of the Abyss (2003), shooting on HD video for IMAX presentation. He then directed the fictional escapades of Avatar in 2009, to enormous financial success.Read another story from us: How Rasputin Initiated the ‘All Persons Fictitious’ Disclaimer in MoviesLife has always existed in three dimensions, but are 3D movies truly here to stay? The history of moviemaking has shown that even if it does fall out of favor, it has a habit of returning for another roll of the dice.last_img read more

Sphinx Room – Hidden Underground Chamber Found in Neros Palace

first_imgNero’s extravagant palace has unearthed a secret hidden chamber. A grand palace that the Emperor Nero built on the ashes of a catastrophic fire in Rome contained a secret room, one that was discovered  some 2,000 years after Nero’s death. While restoring a nearby room, archaeologists recently came upon the 15-foot-high vault-like chamber covered with colorful frescoes of creatures real and imaginary, from birds to centaurs. “In red and ochre hues, with traces of gilding, centaurs dance across the walls with depictions of the goat-legged god Pan, some bearing musical instruments,” according to Science Alert. “Birds and aquatic creatures, including hippocampi, are also depicted, and a warrior armed with bow, shield and sword fighting off a panther, all framed by plant elements, and arabesque figures.”Domus Aurea, Nero’s Golden Palace. Photo by Andy Montgomery CC by SA 2.0Nero’s hidden chamber has been named the Sphinx Room for one creature in particular, a solitary sphinx.  “The find offers a tantalizing glimpse into the atmosphere of the 60s of the First Century AD in Rome,” said officials from the Colosseum archaeological park.AdChoices广告inRead invented by TeadsHidden chamber. Photo: Parco archeologico del ColosseoThe discovery of Nero’s hidden chamber, made in May 2019, “was of immense artistic and archaeological value,” said Alfonsina Russo, the director of the Colosseum, in a statement released to the media. “We hope to finish the work by the end of the year. The room is well preserved but it needs cleaning and restoration.”Creature frescoes on the wall. Photo: Parco archeologico del ColosseoItalian archaeologists believe the room was constructed for Nero sometime between 65 AD and 68 AD. The palace that rose above it, the Domus Aurea, sprawled over four hills in Rome, contained at least 300 rooms (some of them made of white marble), an artificial lake, and a huge status of Nero himself. It was extraordinarily extravagant at a time when Rome was devastated by the fire that destroyed two-thirds of the city.A centaur (left) and Pan (right). Photo: Parco archeologico del Colosseo“It is unclear what this newly discovered chamber was used for, but it’s almost certainly seen some wild stories in its time,” according to IFL Science.Frescoes on the wall. Photo: Parco archeologico del ColosseoNero, the last of the Julio Claudian dynasty, reigned from 54 AD to 68 AD. He died by his own hand at age 30. He is not considered necessarily the worst of the emperors from this family, but Nero might be the most hotly debated today. “Fiddling while Rome burns is just one of the stories that’s made Nero’s reputation as one of the most evil men in history. But the fact that he didn’t even play the violin should alert us to the fact that there’s more to him than historians have said.”Frescoes on the wall. Photo: Parco archeologico del ColosseoAfter Nero’s death, the palace was both neglected and built upon by successive rulers. The Colosseum, the site of gladiatorial battles, is thought to have been built where Nero’s artificial lake once stood.Nero was directly descended from the Emperor Augustus, who was the nephew of Julius Caesar. Nero’s mother was Agrippina the Younger, who married her uncle, the Emperor Claudius, when Nero was a child. Agrippina was also the sister of Emperor Caligula, and historians speculate she was his lover. However, Nero was believed to be the son of Agrippina’s first husband, a nobleman named Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus.Related Video:Claudius adopted Nero and married him to his own daughter, Claudius Octavia. After Nero succeeded Claudius (possibly poisoned) as emperor at a young age, he had his wife banished and forced to end her own life in a bath.Nero blamed the Christians for the fire of Rome, leading to persecutions and many fatalities. He became increasingly unpopular with all levels of society, until his military forces were defeated by those of rival rulers. Once the Senate declared him a public enemy and there was no hope, he took his own life.Related Article: Roman Emperor Nero Competed in the OlympicsSome historians say Nero was personally accomplished, supporting the arts and athletics, and the design of his palace embodied his passions. He gave public performances on the lyre and read his poetry.His last words were said to be “What an artist dies in me.”Nancy Bilyeau, a former staff editor at Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, and InStyle, has written a trilogy of historical thrillers for Touchstone Books. Her new book, The Blue, is a spy story set in the 18th-century porcelain world. For more information, go to www.nancybilyeau.comlast_img read more

VIDEO 12yearold Jamaican sprinter dominates the competition like Usain Bolt

first_imgOlympic legend Usain Bolt is a Jamaican national hero, 12-year-old sprinter Brianna Liston may be the next in line.Liston recently tuned up her competition at the Jamaican Boys and Girls Track & Field Championship in Kingston with a Bolt-like performance. Her 200 meter time of 23.46 is only 2.38 seconds off of the female world record set by Florence Griffith-Joyner at the 1988 Olympics.Again, she’s 12.Watch the video. It won’t take you long to figure out which one is Liston:last_img